Clara Bow

Clara Bow


in Rough House Rosie (1927) Born Clara Gordon Bow
July 29, 1905(1905-07-29)
Brooklyn, New York, U.S. Died September 27, 1965 (aged 60)
West Los Angeles, California, U.S. Spouse Rex Bell (m. 1931–1962) «start: (1931-12-03)–end+1: (1962-07-05)»”Marriage: Rex Bell to Clara Bow” Location: (linkback:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clara_Bow)

Clara Gordon Bow (July 29, 1905[1] – September 27, 1965) was an American actress who rose to stardom in the silent film era of the 1920s.[2] Her acting artistry and high spirits made her the premier flapper and the film It (1927) made her world famous as the “It Girl”. Bow came to personify the “roaring twenties”[3] and is described as its leading sex symbol.[4]

Contents


Sarah Bow 1895Bow was born 1905 in a tenement in Brooklyn slums, [5] New York. She was the third child; the first two, also daughters, born in 1903 and 1904, died in infancy.[6] Her mother Sarah Bow (1880–1923) was told by a doctor not to become pregnant again, because this time she might die as well. Despite this, Bow was conceived in fall of 1904. According to Bow her mother became “almost mad with apprehension and fear.”[7] The delivery proved to be as difficult as feared; “At first, they thought I was dead… I don’t suppose two people ever looked death in the face more clearly than my mother and I the morning I was born. We were both given up, but somehow we struggled back to life.”[7]At sixteen, Sarah fell from a second-story window and suffered a severe head injury. Later she was diagnosed with “psychosis due to epilepsy“,[8] which apart from the seizures can cause disordered thoughts, delusional ideas, paranoia and aggressive behavior.[9]From her earliest years, Bow learned how to care for her mother during seizures and how to deal with psychotic and hostile episodes. She said her mother could be “mean” to her, but “didn’t mean to…she couldn’t help it”.[7] Still, Bow felt deprived of her childhood, stating “As a kid I took care of my mother, she didn’t take care of me”.[10] Sarah worsened gradually, and when she realized her daughter was set for a movie career, she told her she “would be much better off dead”. One night in February 1922, Bow awoke with a butcher knife against her throat; when her mother hesitated, Bow fended her off and locked her up. In the morning, Sarah had no recollection of the episode and was later committed to a charity hospital.[7]


Clara Bow circa 1917Bow said that her father Robert (1874–1959) possessed a quick, keen mind and all the natural qualifications to make something of himself, but didn’t. Robert seldom managed to hold on to a job and the family income varied drastically.[7] Between 1905 and 1923, the Bows lived at least 14 different addresses.[11] Aside from being a weak provider, Robert was often absent, leaving his family without means to survive.[12]

It was snowing. My mother and I were cold and hungry. We had been cold and hungry for days. We lay in each others arms and cried and tried to keep warm. It grew worse and worse. So that night my mother – but I can’t tell you about it. Only when I remember it, it seems to me I can’t live.[13]

Sarah died on January 5, 1923. When relatives gathered for the funeral, Bow accused them of not being supportive when it counted. She was so angry she even tried to jump after her mother down the grave.[7]Bow never had a doll in her life, but treasured her roller skates.[14] As she grew up she felt shy among other girls who teased her for her worn-out clothes and “carrot-top” hair. But she had no use for their company, “sissy” attitudes or games. Instead, from first grade, she enjoyed the society of boys and their sports, stunts and fighting “I could lick any boy my size. My right arm was quite famous. My right arm
w
as developed from pitching so much … Once I hopped a ride on behind a big fire engine. I got a lot of credit from the gang for that”.[7] Bow’s athletic prowess also made her a track racing champion in high-school and her proposed arm strength, Louella Parsons examined; “…curiously enough, she have muscles on her arms that stand out like whip-cord”.[15]


Portrait 1921In the early 1920s, roughly 50 million Americans, or half the population, attended the movies every week.[16] Bow added to the statistics with every cent she got. Budding womanhood had made her stature as a “boy” in her old gang “impossible”, she didn’t have any girlfriends, and school was a “heartache” and home “miserable”. But on the silver screen, Bow found consolation; “For the first time in my life I knew there was beauty in the world. For the first time I saw distant lands, serene, lovely homes, romance, nobility, glamor”. And Bow saw further than that; “I always had a queer feeling about actors and actresses on the screen…I knew I would have done it differently. I couldn’t analyze it, but I could always feel it”. At sixteen Bow “knew” she wanted to be a motion pictures actress, even if she was “a square, awkward, funny-faced kid.”[7]


Contest form 1921Every year Brewster publications Motion Picture Classic and Shadowland, held a nationwide acting contest, Fame and Fortune, and several of its former winners had found work in the pictures afterwards.[17] With her father’s support but against her mother’s wishes, she competed and won. In the final screen test Bow was up against an already scene-experienced woman, who went first and did “a beautiful piece of acting”, but when Bow did the scene she actually became her character and “lived it”.[18] In the January issues 1922 of Motion Picture Classics the jury concluded:

“She is very young, only 16. But she is full of confidence, determination and ambition. She is endowed with a mentality far beyond her years. She has a genuine spark of divine fire. The five different screen tests she had, showed this very plainly, her emotional range of expression provoking a fine enthusiasm from every contest judge who saw the tests. She screens perfectly. Her personal appearance is almost enough to carry her to success without the aid of the brains she indubitably possesses”.[19]

Bow won an evening gown and a silver trophy and the publisher committed to help her “gain a role in films”. But nothing happened. Bow’s father told her to “haunt” Brewster’s office (located in Brooklyn) until they came up with something. “To get rid of me, or maybe they really meant to (give me) all the time and were just busy”, Bow was introduced to director Christy Cabanne who cast her in Beyond the Rainbow, produced late 1921 in New York City and released February 19, 1922.[20] Bow did five scenes, impressed Cabanne with true theatrical tears,[7] but was eventually cut from the print. Bow wasn’t told, but found out when she saw the movie at a theater in Brooklyn. “I was sick to my stomach”, she recalled and thought her mother was right about the movie business. Bow, who dropped out of school after she was notified about winning the contest, possibly in October 1921, got an ordinary office job.[21] However, movie ads and newspaper editorial comments from 1922–1923 suggest that Bow was not cut from Beyond the Rainbow. Her name is on the cast list among the other stars, usually tagged “Brewster magazine beauty contest winner” and sometimes even with a picture.[22]


Tomboy Bow undercover in Down to the Sea in Ships (1923)


Early advertEncouraged by her father, Bow started to run around studio agencies asking for parts. “But there was always something. I was too young, or too little, or too fat. Usually I was too fat.”[7] Eventually director Elmer Clifton needed a tomboy for his movie Down to the Sea in Ships, saw Bow in Motion Picture Classic magazine and sent for her. In an attempt to overcome her youthful looks, Bow put her hair up and arrived in a dress she ‘sneaked’ from her mother. Clifton said she was too old, but broke into laughter as the stammering Bow made him believe she was the girl in the magazine. Clifton decided to bring Bow with him and offered her $50 a week, but added he couldn’t say whether or not she would “fit the part”.[23]


Late advert.Down to the Sea in Ships was shot on location, New Bedford Massachusetts, produced by ‘the whaling film corporation’ and intended to document the life, love and work in a whale-hunter community. The production relied on a few unknown actors and local talents. Director Clifton needed twelve weeks to shoot it and several months to bring it together. At first it was advertised with full page action scenes, omitting the cast. In the end, when it had boiled down to its essence, there was Bow. Critics sang her praise.

  • “Miss Bow will undoubtedly gain fame as a screen comedienne”[24]
  • “She scored a tremendous hit in Down to the Sea in Ships..(and)..has reached the front rank of motion picture principal players…”[25]
  • “With her beauty, her brains, her personality and her genuine acting ability it should not be many moons before she enjoys stardom in the fullest sense of the word. You must see Down to the Sea in Ships[26]
  • “In movie parlance, she “stole” the picture…”[27]


Bow was chosen the foremost “baby” by the WAMPAS [28]Bow found herself walking time after time by a Broadway movie theater, starring at her name in shimmering electric light above the entrance. “I can never tell you what happiness I felt, life had been so terrible hard and it seemed to me that now all my troubles were to be in the

past”.[23] By mid December 1923, primarily due to her merits in Down to the Sea in Ships, Bow was chosen the most successful of the 1924 WAMPAS Baby Stars.[29]

Three months before Down to the Sea in Ships was released, while her mother was dying at home, Bow danced half nude, on a table, unaccredited in Enemies of woman.[30] In spring she got a part in The Daring Years and in the summer, she got a “tomboy” part in Grit, a story, which dealt with juvenile crime and was written by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Bow met her first boyfriend, cameraman Arthur Jacobson, and she got to know director Frank Tuttle, with whom she worked in five later productions.


Young Bow in GritTuttle remembered; “Her emotions were close to the surface..she was dynamite, full of nervous energy and vitality and pitifully eager to please everyone”.[23] Grit was released in January 1924. Variety wrote; “..Clara Bow lingers in the eye, long after the picture has gone..”[31]While shooting Grit at Pyramid Studios, in Astoria, New York, Bow was approached by Jack Bachman, associated producer at Preferred Pictures in Hollywood. He wanted to contract her for a three months trial, fare paid and $50 a week. “It can’t do any harm”, he said,[7] but Bow hesitated, as she enjoyed her life in New York. “Why can’t I stay in New York and make movies?”, she asked her father, but again he encouraged her to move ahead.[32]On July 21, 1923 she befriended Louella Parsons, who interviewed her for The New York Morning Telegraph. In 1930/1931 when Bow came under tabloid scrutiny, Parsons defended her and stuck to her first opinion on Bow:[33]

She is as refreshingly unaffected as if she had never faced a means to pretend. She hasn’t any secrets from the world, she trusts everyone… she is almost too good to be true…(I) only wish some reformer who believes the screen contaminates all who associate with it could meet this child. Still on second thought it might not be safe: Clara uses a dangerous pair of eyes.

The interview also revealed that Bow already was cast in Maytime and in great favor of Chinese cuisine.[34]


Frame from newly rediscovered (May 2010, New Zealand) copy of Maytime. Bow comforting Ethel Shannon.July 22, 1923, Bow left New York, her father and her boyfriend behind.[35] As chaperon for the journey and stay in Hollywood, the studio appointed writer / agent Maxine Alton, who Bow later branded a liar.[7] In late July Bow entered studio chief B. P. Schulberg‘s office wearing a simple high-school uniform in which she “had won several gold medals on the cinder track”.[36] She was tested and a press-release from early August says Bow had become a member of Preferred Picture’s permanent stock.[37] She and Alton rented an apartment at Hillview near Hollywood Boulevard.[35] Preferred Pictures was run by Schulberg who started as a publicity manager at Famous Players Lasky, but in the aftermath of the power struggle around the formation of United Artists ended up on the losing side and lost his job. In 1919, at age 27, he founded Preferred Pictures.[38]

Bow’s first Hollywood picture was an adaptation of the popular operetta Maytime. She essayed “Alice Tremaine”, a second lead character who appears in the first half of the play. Before Maytime was finished Schulberg announced that Bow was given the lead in the studio’s biggest seasonal assessment, Poisoned Paradise,[36] but first she was lent to First National Pictures to co-star in the adaptation of Gertrude Atherton‘s 1923 bestseller Black Oxen, shot in October, and to co-star with Colleen Moore in Painted People, shot in November.[39]


Bow as Janet Oglethorpe, the “horrid” flapper in Black Oxen, holding Flaming Youth to her chest. With Kate Lester and Tom RickettsDirector Frank Lloyd was casting for the part of high society flapper “Janet Oglethorpe”. More than 50 women, most with previous screen experience, auditioned.[40] Bow reminisced, “He had not found exactly what he wanted and finally somebody suggested me to him. When I came into his office a big smile came over his face and he looked just tickled to death”.[7] Lloyd told the press, “Bow is the personification of the ideal aristocratic flapper, mischievous, pretty, aggressive, quick-tempered and deeply sentimental”[41] Black Oxen was released December 29 and critics agreed it was a good adaptation of the book. Corinne Griffith and Conway Tearle top starred, but Bow gave them a close race for the approval of the audience.[42]

  • “[The] … horrid little flapper is adorably played”.[43]
  • “Clara Bow as Janet… the very apotheosis of youth… an excellent performance”.[44]

Colleen Moore made her flapper debut in a successful adaptation of the daring novel Flaming Youth, released November 12, 1923, six weeks before Black Oxen. Both films were produced by First National Pictures, and while Black Oxen still was edited and Flaming Youth not yet released, Bow was requested to co-star Moore as her kid sister in Painted People.[45]As the portrayed family was poor and Moore essayed the Baseball-playing tomboy, Bow told her they should switch parts.[45] Moore, a well-established star earning $1200 a week–Bow got $200–took offense and blocked the director from doing a close-up on Bow. Moore was married to a studio executive and Bow’s protests fell short. “I’ll get that b***h”, she told her boyfriend Jacobson, who had arrived from New York. Bow had sinus problems and decided to have them attended to immediately. A bandaged Bow left the studio with no options but to recast her part.[46]


Robert and Clar

a Bow 1931During 1924 Bow’s “horrid” flapper raced against Moore’s “whimsical”.[47] In May Moore renewed her efforts in The Perfect Flapper, produced by her husband, but despite good reviews she suddenly withdrew. “No more flappers…they have served their purpose…people are tired of soda-pop love affairs”, she told the Los Angeles Times,[47] that commented a month earlier, “Clara Bow is the one outstanding type. She has almost immediately been elected for all the recent flapper parts”[48] In November 1933, Bow described the Hollywood years as a French Revolution picture, where “women are hollering and waving pitchforks twice as violently as any of the guys…the only ladies in sight are the ones getting their heads cut off”.[49]

[50]

By New Year 1924 Bow defied the possessive Maxine Alton and brought her father to Hollywood. Bow remembered their reunion; “I didn’t care a rap, for (Maxine Alton), or B. P. Schulberg, or my motion picture career, or Clara Bow, I just threw myself into his arms and kissed and kissed him, and we both cried like a couple of fool kids. Oh, it was wonderful”.[7] Bow felt Alton had misused her trust; “She wanted to keep a hold on me so she made me think I wasn’t getting over and that nothing but her clever management kept me going”.[7] Bow and her father moved in at 1714 North Kingsley Drive in Beverly Hills, together with Jacobson, whom by then, also worked for “Preferred”. When Schulberg learned of this arrangement, he fired Jacobson for potentially getting “his big star” into a scandal. When Bow found out, “She tore up her contract and threw it in his face and told him he couldn’t run her private life”. Jacobson concluded, “[Clara] was the sweetest girl in the world, but you didn’t cross her and you didn’t do her wrong[51] In September 7th, 1924, The Los Angeles Times, in a significant article “A dangerous little devil is Clara, impish, appealing, but oh, how she can act!”, her father is titled “Business manager” and Jacobson referred to as her brother.[52]

In 1925, Schulberg cast Bow in The Plastic Age. The movie was a huge hit. She also began to date her co-star Gilbert Roland, who would become the first of many fiancees. Bow followed her first big success with Mantrap (1926), directed by Victor Fleming. Though he was twice her age, Bow quickly fell in love with her director. She began seeing both Roland and Fleming at the same time.[citation needed]


Publicity photo, circa 1924In 1927, Bow reached the heights of her popularity with the film It; the film was based on a story written by Elinor Glyn, and upon the film’s release, Bow became known as “The It Girl“. In Glyn’s story, It, a character explains what “It” really is: “It…that strange magnetism which attracts both sexes… [e]ntirely unself-conscious…full of self-confidence… [i]ndifferent to the effect… [s]he is producing and uninfluenced by others.”Many Hollywood insiders considered her socially undesirable. Bow was not liked by other women in Hollywood, and her presence at social functions was taboo, including her own premieres.[citation needed] Bow’s bohemian lifestyle, thick Brooklyn accent and “dreadful” manners were considered reminders of the Hollywood Elite’s uneasy position in high society, and they shunned her for it.[53] Budd Schulberg, wrote in his memoir, Moving Pictures, “Hollywood was a cultural schizophrene: The anti-movie Old Guard with their chamber music and their religious pageants fighting a losing battle against the more dynamic culture of the Ad Schulbergs who flaunted the bohemianism of Edna St. Vincent Millay and the socialism of Upton Sinclair. But there was one subject on which the staid old Hollywood establishment and the members of the new culture circle would agree: Clara Bow, no matter how great her popularity, was a low life and a disgrace to the community.”[54]However, Bow was praised by critics for her beauty, vitality and enthusiasm — Adolph Zukor, head of Paramount, said that “She danced even when her feet weren’t moving. Some part of her was always in motion, if only her great, rolling eyes. It was an elemental magnetism, an animal vitality, that made her the center of attraction in any company.”[55]


Wings (1927)In 1927, Bow starred in Wings, a war picture largely rewritten to accommodate her, as she was Paramount’s biggest star at the time. The film went on to win the first Academy Award for Best Picture. In 1928, Bow wrote the foreword for a novelization of her film The Fleet’s In. Between 1927 and 1930, Bow was one of Hollywood’s top five box office attractions.[56]Bow’s career continued into the early sound film era. Legend contends that her first talkie, The Wild Party, directed by Dorothy Arzner, was a disaster, but audiences crammed into theatres to see it, and the reviews, though they gave the film itself poor marks, commented that her voice suited her screen image well.[57] However, Bow began experiencing microphone fright on the sets of her sound films. A visibly nervous Bow had to do a number of retakes in The Wild Party because her eyes kept wandering up to the microphone overhead; Arzner took credit for being the first director to hang the microphone from overhead.[58] However, her performances in her sound films improved rapidly, and she continued to be a box office success.While MGM had given their biggest star, Greta Garbo, two years to prepare for her first sound film, Paramount gave Bow two weeks. Paramount began canceling her films, docking her pay, charging her for unreturned costumes, and insisting that she pay for her publicity photographs. As she slipped closer and closer to a major breakdown, her manager B.P. Schulberg began referring to her as “Crisis-A-Day-Clara”.[59]The pressures of fame, public scandals, overwork and a damaging court trial involving former assistant Daisy DeVoe took their toll on Bow’s already fragile emotional health. She ended up in a sanatorium in April 1931 with a case of shattered nerves. Paramount released her from her contract a short while later. Following a brief period away from Hollywood to recover, Bow signed a two-picture deal with Fox Film Corporation and returned to the screen in the early talkie Call Her Savage (1932). Although the film was a success, Bow opted for marriage and motherhood, and ended her film career after the release of Hoop-La the following year.

Bow and cowboy actor Rex Bell (actually George F. Beldam), later a Lieutenant Governor of Nevada, married in 1932 and had two sons, Tony Beldam (born 1934, changed name to Rex Anthony Bell, Jr.) and George Beldam, Jr. (born 1938). Bow retired from acting in 1933. Her last public exposure, albeit fleeting, was a guest appearance on the radio show Truth or Consequences in 1947; Bow provided the voice of “Mrs. Hush”.


Clara Bow’s crypt at Forest Lawn GlendaleIn 1944, while Bell was running for the U.S. House of Representatives, Bow tried to commit suicide.[60] In 1949 she checked into The Institute of Living to be treated for her chronic insomnia. Shock treatment was tried and numerous psychological tests performed. Bow’s IQ was measured “bright normal” (pp. 111–119), while others claimed she was unable to reason, had poor judgment and displayed inappropriate or even bizarre behavior. Bow was diagnosed with schizophrenia, despite experiencing no hallucinations or psychosis. Her insomnia was a result of childhood trauma, the analysts said, but Bow rejected psychological explanations for both her sleep disorder and her physical pains.[61][62]Bow spent her last years in a modest house in Los Angeles under the constant care of a nurse, living off an estate worth about $500,000 at the time of her death.[61] She died on September 27, 1965, aged 60, of a heart attack while watching a Gary Cooper movie. The autopsy revealed that Bow suffered from atherosclerosis (death certificate), a heart disease established in early adolescence.[63] Bow’s heart bore scars from an earlier undiagnosed heart attack.[64] She was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California.

For her contributions to the motion picture industry, Bow was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1994, she was honored with an image on a United States postage stamp designed by caricaturist Al Hirschfeld.

The book Hollywood Babylon spread the contemporary legend that Bow’s friendship with members of the 1927 University of Southern California football team included group sex with the entire team. This was finally proved incorrect by her biographer, David Stenn, who interviewed still-living members of that year’s team while researching his book.[58]During her lifetime, Bow was the subject of wild rumors regarding her sex life; most of them were untrue. A tabloid called The Coast Reporter published lurid allegations about her in 1931, accusing her of exhibitionism, incest, lesbianism, bestiality, drug addiction, alcoholism, and having contracted venereal disease. The publisher of the tabloid then tried to blackmail Bow, offering to cease printing the stories for $25,000, which led to his arrest by federal agents, and later an eight-year prison sentence.[65]


Clara Bow, publicity shot, 1930

  • The alternative rock band 50 Foot Wave entitled a song “Clara Bow” on their CD Golden Ocean.
  • Bow is mentioned in the lyrics of the song “Condition of the Heart” by Prince on his album Around the World in a Day.
  • Bow is mentioned in the lyrics of the song “Chop Suey” in Rodgers & Hammerstein‘s musical comedy Flower Drum Song.
  • Bow is mentioned in the lyrics of the song “I’maman” by Jobriath on his self-titled debut album.
  • Max Fleischer‘s cartoon character Betty Boop was modeled after Bow and entertainer Helen Kane (the “boop-boop-a-doop-girl”).
  • Bow’s mass of tangled red hair was one of her most famous features. When fans of the new star found out she put henna in her hair, sales of the dye tripled.[58]
  • Bow applied her red lipstick in the shape of a heart. Women who imitated this shape were said to be putting a “Clara Bow” on their mouths.[58]
  • She is Effy’s idol in the popular E4 show Skins.[66]
  • An autographed picture of Bow is offered as a consolation prize of a beauty contest in the 1931 George Gershwin musical Of Thee I Sing.
  • In an episode of the Fox TV series, Bones, forensic anthropologist Temperance Brennan’s undercover persona “Roxie”, is based on Brennan’s memories of watching Bow’s films as a child. Her partner mentions that Clara Bow was a silent screen star, to which Brennan replies that she was imitating what she imagined Bow sounded like. Obviously, Brennan had never seen Bow’s “talkie” work.
  • In the novel Alas, Babylon by Pat Frank, the character Florence Wechek is described as looking like Clara Bow.
  • In the 1990 novel Vineland by Thomas Pynchon, the character Zoyd Wheeler refers to his daughter watching Pia Zadora in the fictitious movie The Clara Bow Story.
  • Two graphic adventure games by Sierra star a heroine named, Laura Bow, who is a clear homage to Clara Bow.
  • In the film, The Rules of Attraction directed by Roger Avary and based on the novel of the same name by Bret Easton Ellis, the character Lauren is told by a NYU film school student at a party that she looks like Clara Bow.
  • In the song “straight girl of the Universe” by Alternative rock group The Exies Clara Bow is referred to.
  • The British pop/rock band Cleaners From Venus recorded a song about her (“Clara Bow”) which was released in 1987 on the album Going to England.
  • Bow is mentioned in an episode of M*A*S*H when Hawkeye and Colonel Potter are behind enemy lines. They are drunk and trying to convince American infantrymen that they are ‘one of them’. Hawkeye references ‘apple pie’ and ‘Betty Grable’. When Potter references ‘Clara Bow’, Hawkeye remarks, “Clara Bow? Frank’s right, you are old.”
  • In the novel The Witching Hour, author Anne Rice says Stella Mayfair looks like Clara Bow.
  • . The Song “Clara Bow” was on Golden Carillo’s album “Back For More.” It is still performed by Annie Golden solo.

Film
Year Title Role Notes
1922 Beyond the Rainbow Virginia Gardener
1922 Down to the Sea in Ships Dot Morgan
1923 Enemies of Women Girl dancing on table
1923 Daring Years, TheThe Daring Years Mary
1923 Maytime Alice Tremaine
1923 Black Oxen Janet Ogelthorpe
1924 Grit Orchid McGonigle
1924 Poisoned Paradise Margot LeBlanc
1924 Daughters of Pleasure Lila Millas Alternative title: Beggar on Horseback
1924 Wine Angela Warriner
1924 Empty Hearts Rosalie
1924 Helen’s Babies Alice Mayton
1924 This Woman Aline Sturdevant
1924 Black Lightning Martha Larned
1925 Capital Punishment Delia Tate
1925 Adventurous Sex, TheThe Adventurous Sex The Girl
1925 Eve’s Lover Rena D’Arcy
1925 Lawful Cheater, TheThe Lawful Cheater Molly Burns
1925 Scarlet West, TheThe Scarlet West Miriam
1925 My Lady’s Lips Lola Lombard
1925 Parisian Love Marie
1925 Kiss Me Again Grizette
1925 Keeper of the Bees, TheThe Keeper of the Bees Lolly Cameron
1925 Primrose Path, TheThe Primrose Path Marilyn Merrill
1925 Free to Love Marie Anthony
1925 Best Bad Man, TheThe Best Bad Man Peggy Swain
1925 Plastic Age, TheThe Plastic Age Cynthia Day
1925 Ancient Mariner, TheThe Ancient Mariner Doris
1925 My Lady of Whims Prudence Severn
1926 Dance Madness
1926 Shadow of the Law Mary Brophy
1926 Two Can Play Dorothy Hammis
1926 Dancing Mothers Kittens Westcourt
1926 Fascinating Youth Clara Bow
1926 Runaway, TheThe Runaway Cynthia Meade
1926 Mantrap Alverna
1926 Kid Boots Clara McCoy
1927 It Betty Lou Spence
1927 Children of Divorce Kitty Flanders
1927 Rough House Rosie Rosie O’Reilly
1927 Wings Mary Preston
1927 Hula Hula Calhoun
1927 Get Your Man Nancy Worthington
1928 Red Hair Bubbles McCoy
1928 Ladies of the Mob Yvonne
1928 Fleet’s In, TheThe Fleet’s In Trixie Deane
1928 Three Weekends Gladys O’Brien
1929 Wild Party, TheThe Wild Party Stella Ames
1929 Dangerous Curves Pat Delaney
1929 Saturday Night Kid, TheThe Saturday Night Kid Mayme Alternative title: Love ‘Em and Leave ‘Em
1930 True to the Navy Ruby Nolan
1930 Love Among the Millionaires Pepper Whipple
1930 Her Wedding Night Norma Martin
1931 No Limit Helen “Bunny” O’Day
1931 Kick In Molly Hewes
1932 Call Her Savage Nasa Springer
1933 Hoop-La Lou
1949 Screen Snapshots 1860: Howdy, Podner Clara Bow – Resort Guest Short subject

Constructs such as ibid. and loc. cit. are discouraged by Wikipedia’s style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title.

  • ^ In US census records, enumerated in 1910-04-15 and 1920-01-07, Bows age is stated four resp. fourteen.
  • ^ Obituary Variety, September 29, 1965.
  • ^ Morella, Joseph; Edward Epstein (1976). The “It” Girl. Delacorte Press. p. 283. 
  • ^ Drowne, Kathleen Morgan; Patrick Huber (2004). The 1920’s. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 237. ISBN 0313320136. 
  • ^ “I was born in the slums…”, Lolas Daily Register March, 3, 1936
  • ^ Stenn, David (1988). Clara Bow: Runnin’ Wild. Doubleday. p. 8. ISBN 0385241259. 
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o “My life, by Clara Bow”. Told to and edited by Adela Rogers St. Johns. Published by Photoplay Magazine in February, March and April 1928.
  • ^ Stenn, David (1988). Clara Bow:Runnin’ wild. Doubleday. p. 26. ISBN 0385241259. 
  • ^ “NYU Langone Medical Center website (psychosis and epilepsy)”. Med.nyu.edu. http://www.med.nyu.edu/cec/living/disorders/psychosis.html. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  • ^ Morella, Joseph; Edward Epstein (1976). The “It” Girl. Delacorte Press. p. 24. 
  • ^ Stenn, David (1988). Clara Bow: Runnin’ Wild. Doubleday. p. 322. ISBN 0385241259. 
  • ^ Morella, Joseph; Edward Epstein (1976). The “It” Girl. Delacorte Press. p. 17. 
  • ^ St. Johns, Adela Rogers (December 1930). “The Salvation of Clara Bow”. The New Movie Magazine: 40. 
  • ^ Morella, Joseph; Edward Epstein (1976). The “It” Girl. Delacorte Press. p. 19. 
  • ^ “Real life story of Clara Bow”, in sixteen parts, by Louella O Parsons, published by San Antonio light, May 15th – June 4th, 1931
  • ^ “Daily life in the US, 1920–1939″, David E. Kyvig, p. 79, 2002, The Greenwood Press Daily Life Through History Series
  • ^ Fort Wayne News April 29, 1921
  • ^ Statement made by set member, “Real life story of Clara Bow” by Louella Parsons, The San Antonio Light, May 21, 1931
  • ^ Motion Picture Magazine, Jan 1922; jury; Howard Chandler Christy, movie critic, Neysa Mcmein, illustrator, Harrison Fischer, artist, painter, stage & movie critic
  • ^ Clara Bow Runnin’ Wild, p. 287, Stenn, David, 1988 Penguin Books, a Division of Viking Penguin, New York,
  • ^ The It Girl by Joe Morella and Edward Z Epstein, p. 39, 1976, Dell Publishing Co., Inc, ISBN 0-440-14068-4
  • ^ see Beyond the Rainbow for an example.
  • ^ a b c “Real life story of Clara Bow”, in sixteen parts, by Louella Parsons, published by San Antonio light, May 15 – June 4, 1931
  • ^ The Ogden Standard Examiner December 17th 1922 (Pre-release)
  • ^ Pennsylvania Daily News September 4th 1923.
  • ^ the Kokomo Daily Tribune, October 6th 1923
  • ^ the Davenport democrat and leader November 28th 1923
  • ^ PhotoPlay Magazine September 1929 p.64
  • ^ Los Angeles times, December 17th 1923
  • ^ The It Girl by Joe Morella and Edward Z Epstein, p. 45, 1976, Dell Publishing Co., Inc, ISBN 0-440-14068-4
  • ^ Variety February 29th 1924
  • ^ The It Girl by Joe Morella and Edward Z Epstein, p. 47, 1976, Dell Publishing Co., Inc, ISBN 0-440-14068-4
  • ^ ”Real life story of Clara Bow”, in sixteen parts, by Louella Parsons, published by San Antonio light, May 15 – June 4, 1931
  • ^ New York Morning Telegraph, July 22nd 1923
  • ^ a b ”Real life story of Clara Bow”, 16 parts, by Louella Parsons, published by San Antonio light, May 15 – June 4, 1931
  • ^ a b The Davenport Democrat & Leader, September 9th 1923
  • ^ Morning Avalanche, August 5th 1923
  • ^ Moving Pictures, Budd Schulberg, p.100, 1981, Allison & Busby, London UK, ISBN 0-74900-127-5
  • ^ Clara Bow “Runnin” Wild, Stenn, David, p.39, p.289, 1988 Penguin Books, a Division of Viking Penguin, New York,
  • ^ “Real life story of Clara Bow”, 16 parts, by Louella Parsons, published by San Antonio light, May 15 – June 4, 1931
  • ^ Hamilton Evening Journal, March 4th 1924
  • ^ Appleton Post-Crescent, Jan 23rd 1924
  • ^ Variety, Jan 10th 1924
  • ^ Manitowoc Herald News, February 11th 1924
  • ^ a b Morella, Joseph; Edward Epstein (1976). The “It” Girl. Delacorte Press. p. 59. 
  • ^ Arthur Jacobson, told to I.K. Atkins, P.17, 1991, Directors Guild of America, Scarecrow Press Inc. NJ USA
  • ^ a b Los Angeles Times, May 18th 1924
  • ^ Los Angeles Times, April 13th 1924
  • ^ Kansas City Star, November 16th 1933
  • ^ Robert Bow to Arthur Jacobson, told to I.K. Atkins, P.18, 1991, The Directors Guild of America, The Scarecrow Press Inc. NJ USA
  • ^ Arthur Jacobson, told to I.K. Atkins, P.15-18, 1991, The Directors Guild of America, The Scarecrow Press Inc. NJ USA
  • ^ Los Angeles Times, September 7th 1924
  • ^ Stenn, David, Clara Bow Runnin’ Wild, pp. 116–117, 1988, Penguin Books, a division of Penuguin Viking, New York, New York, originally published by Doubleday, New York, New York
  • ^ Schulberg, Budd, Moving Pictures: Memories of a Hollywood Prince, September 25, 2003, Ivan R. Dee, Publisher
  • ^ Stenn, David, Clara Bow Runnin’ Wild, p. 70, 1988, Penguin Books, a division of Penuguin Viking, New York, originally published by Doubleday New York
  • ^ “”The Girl Who Had IT”, Time. Time.com. 1965-10-08. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,842186,00.html. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  • ^ Stenn, David, Clara Bow Runnin’ Wild, pp. 157–162, 1998 Penguin Books, a Division of Penguin Viking New York, originally published by Doubleday, New York
  • ^ a b c d “Clara Bow and the USC Football Team at”. snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/movies/actors/clarabow.asp. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  • ^ Stenn, David, Clara Bow Runnin’ Wild, p. 231, 1998 Penguin Books, a Division of Penguin Viking New York, originally published by Doubleday, New York
  • ^ “Politics ’99|Human Events|Find Articles at BNET.com”. Findarticles.com. 1999-01-15. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3827/is_199901/ai_n8841928. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  • ^ a b Stenn, David. Running Wild, pp. 263, 266, Cooper Square Press, New Ed Edition 2000. ISBN
  • ^ Joseph Morella, Edward Z Epstein. The “It” Girl”, p. 276, Dell TM 681510 Dell Pub Co, INC, 1977, ISBN 0-440-14068-4
  • ^ De Vane, Mattew S, Heart Smart, pp. 31–32, Edition Illustrated, John Wiley and Sons, 2006
  • ^ Stenn, David. Running Wild, p. 281, Cooper Square Press, New Ed Edition 2000. ISBN
  • ^ Stenn, David, Clara Bow: Runnin’ Wild, p. 238, 1988 Penguin Books, a division of Viking Penguin New York, originally published by Doubleday, New York
  • “Effy’s blog”. E4.com. http://www.e4.com/skins/blog-effy.html. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  • Jessica Dougherty

    Jessica Dougherty is a modern pin-up artist born in 1975, notable for being featured artist in a number of art and tattoo books and magazines.[1][2][3][4] There are several online pin-up galleries and blogs/publications showing and talking about Jessica’s work[5][6][7][8][9] and she has been featured in a number of group and solo shows in the Seattle area.[10][11][12][13][14] She has also been involved in web and corporate work.[15][16][17] including work for Eidos Interactive.[18]

  • ^ “Skin Deep”, issue 162
  • ^ “The World’s Greatest Erotic Art of Today”
  • ^ PC/XBox Game 2007: [1]
  • ^ “A Fetish Icon’s Photographic Journey”
  • ^ http://www.thepinupfiles.com/
  • ^ http://www.photonetion1.com/0/jdougherty1.htm
  • ^ http://pinupandscetches.blogspot.com/2008/07/jessica-dougherty.html
  • ^ http://www.pinupart.org/Gal10_Jessica_Dougherty_Gallery_www.jessicaspinups.com.asp
  • ^ http://www.imeem.com/groups/Js1C2n2c,modern_pinup_girls//playlist/Mh2WRu0w/jessica_dougherty_photo_playlist/
  • ^ Hot Damn! Group show, Raven’s Gallery Erotic, Seattle, WA, USA August – September 2007
  • ^ Solo Show at Noc Noc, Seattle, WA, USA, August – October 2006
  • ^ Exotic Underground Group Show, Last Supper Club, Seattle, WA, USA, June 2006
  • ^ Seattle Erotic Arts Festival, Seattle, WA, USA, April 2006
  • ^ Seattle Erotic Arts Festival, Seattle, WA, USA, April 2005
  • ^ Shirley of Hollywood Lingerie, 2007 60th Anniversary redesign of corporate Christmas card and corset of logo
  • ^ Red Rocket Energy, 2007 label design for energy drink
  • ^ MotoCandy.com, 2007 Miss Motocandy Winner posters and merchandise design
  • ^ 2007 – 13 Pin-ups for video game, Battle Stations Midway, advertising campaign, calendar and model contest winner
  • Belle Bennett

    Belle Bennett

    Born April 22, 1891(1891-04-22)
    Milaca, Minnesota Died November 4, 1932 (aged 41)
    Los Angeles, California Occupation stage and screen actress Spouse(s) Jack Oaker, William Macy, Fred Windermere

    Belle Bennett (April 22, 1891 – November 4, 1932) was a stage and screen actress who started her professional career in vaudeville. She was born in Milaca, Minnesota.

    Contents

    Bennett appeared in circus performances during her childhood. Her father was Billie Bennett, owner of a circus. He trained her to be a trapeze performer after she spent some years in the Sacred Heart Convent in Minneapolis, Minnesota. By age thirteen she was appearing in public. Performances with stock companies led Bennett to Broadway. There she appeared in theatrical productions staged by David Belasco.

    Bennett was cast in numerous minor Hollywood motion pictures like the western film A Ticket to Red Horse Gulch (1914). Then Samuel Goldwyn selected her from among seventy-three actresses for the leading role in Stella Dallas (1925). The film has been ranked as one of the finest movies of all time. While filming the movie her son, sixteen-year-old William Howard Macy, died. Macy had posed as Bennett’s brother for some time because of her fear that her employers might find out her true age. She was actually thirty-four rather than twenty-four, which she had claimed to be.After playing the mother role in Stella Dallas Bennett was typecast for the remainder of her film career. She later appeared in Mother Machree (1928), The Battle of the Sexes (1928), The Iron Mask (1929), Courage (1930), Recaptured Love (1930) and The Big Shot (1931).

    Bennett was married three times. Jack Oaker, a sailor at the San Pedro, California submarine base, was married to her when she worked with the Triangle Film Corporation, in 1918. Her second husband was William Macy of La Crosse, Wisconsin. She later married film director Fred Windermere.

    During a break in her film career Bennett performed in vaudeville at a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania theater. She collapsed on stage and was eventually checked into a Harrisburg, Pennsylvania hospital. There she underwent blood transfusions and was able to continue acting briefly. In September 1932 she was rushed by plane from New York following a relapse of cancer which she had been suffering from for two and a half years. She died that November at the age of 41 at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Los Angeles, California. Late in her life Bennett came to believe in the power of prayer. A practitioner of Christian Science influenced her. She is interred in the Valhalla Memorial Park Cemetery in North Hollywood.Bennett has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

    • Los Angeles Times, Found Unconscious, July 25, 1918, Page I10.
    • Los Angeles Times, Death Takes Star of Stella Dallas, November 5, 1932, Page A1.

    Pola Negri

    Pola Negri

    Born Barbara Apolonia Chałupiec
    January 3, 1897(1897-01-03)
    Lipno, Vistula Land (now Poland) Died August 1, 1987 (aged 90)
    San Antonio, Texas, U.S.

    Pola Negri (3 January 1897 – August 1, 1987) was a Polish film actress who achieved worlwide fame as a femme fatale in silent films between 1910s and 1930s.

    Contents

    Born Barbara Apolonia Chałupiec according to her birth record and autobiography[1] (unsourced publications sometimes add Barbara as her other baptismal name) on January 3, 1897 in Lipno, Vistula Land (present-day Poland), as an only child in a poor family, her mother had to make a living alone after Chałupiec’s father was arrested by the Russians and sent to Siberia. Her father, Juraj Chałupiec, was a Slovak immigrant tinsmith.[1][2]In 1902, both moved to Warsaw, where they lived in extreme poverty[citation needed]. She trained as a dancer at the Ballet School in Warsaw and performed there until tuberculosis forced her to stop dancing.During her movie career, she was also touted as an accomplished organist, and at least one extant photograph shows her apparently performing on a two manual pipe organ, but this may have been merely publicity, as her family’s extreme poverty would seem to argue against her studying with any well-known organist[citation needed].She turned to acting, and by the end of World War I had established herself as a popular stage actress in Warsaw, appearing in several films. She made an appearance in the Grand Theatre (in Sumurun), as well as in Small Theatre (Aleksander Fredro‘s Śluby panieńskie) and at the Summer Theatre in the Saxon Garden, a popular summer variéte theatre. She debuted in film in 1914 in Slave of the Senses (Niewolnica zmysłów).During that time, she adopted the pseudonym “Pola Negri,” after the Italian poetess, Ada Negri. She also appeared in a variety of films made by the Warsaw film industry, including The Wife (Żona), The Beast (Bestia), Students (Studenci), Street Ruffian’s Lover (Kochanka apasza) and the Mysteries of Warsaw series. During her short screen career in Warsaw, she gained much popularity, acting with many of the most renowned Polish film artists of the time, including Józef Węgrzyn, Władysław Grabowski, Józef Galewski and Kazimierz Junosza-Stępowski.

    In 1917, her popularity provided her with an opportunity to move to Berlin, Germany, where she appeared in several films for film directors of the UFA agency, including Max Reinhardt and Ernst Lubitsch. Their films were successful throughout the world, and in 1922 both were offered contracts with Hollywood studios and the following year Negri settled in the U.S. Her exotic style of glamour proved popular with audiences during the 1920s and her affairs with such notable actors as Charlie Chaplin and Rudolph Valentino ensured that she remained in the public eye.One of the most popular Hollywood actresses of the era, and certainly the richest woman of the movie industry at the time[3], Negri lived in a palace in Los Angeles, modelled after the White House. However, her popularity quickly began to fade.

    Negri caused a media sensation after the death in 1926 of Valentino by announcing that they had planned to marry, and following the train that carried his body from New York City to Los Angeles, posing for photographers at every stop. At his funeral she “fainted” several times, and arranged for a large floral arrangement, which spelled out her name, to be placed on Valentino’s coffin. Despite the wide publicity she attracted, many of Valentino’s friends stated that Valentino and Negri had not intended to marry, and dismissed her actions as a publicity stunt. Negri allegedly kept Valentino’s picture on her bedside table until the end of her life, always insisting he had been the great love of her life. Actress Tallulah Bankhead, in particular, badmouthed Negri, although others such as Mary Pickford (supportive and generous to so many troubled actresses of the time) and Valentino’s brother, Alberto, defended her.Negri’s “vamp” style began to go out of vogue, and the advent of talking pictures revealed an accented voice that the public did not warm to. As Negri put it: “They went from Pola to Polaroid.” Also, the Hays Code introduced in 1930 prevented Negri from using her staging techniques, for which she was so popular in Europe. The ban on “scenes of passion” and “excessive and lustful kissing” proved especially disastrous to her career in the U.S.


    Pola Negri, 1924Having divorced Eugeniusz Dąbski in 1921, Negri married Serge Mdivani in 1927 (he claimed to be a Georgian prince and his brother was married to actress Mae Murray). In 1929, Negri lost most of her fortune in the Wall Street Crash. The couple divorced, and she returned to Europe.In 1928, Negri made her last film for Paramount Pictures, The Woman From Moscow, opposite actor Norman Kerry. The film was only Negri’s second talkie (the first being Loves of an Actress, also released in 1928) and Paramount declined to renew her contract after audiences allegedly had difficulty discerning her dialog because of her heavy Polish accent. Negri subsequently left Hollywood later that year for Great Britain to make the 1929 drama The Way of Lost Souls (also known as The Woman He Scorned).Pola was known for her support of Poland even refusing to take part in a German film as it was anti-Polish in 1930 [3]. She made only a few films after 1930, and worked mainly in England and Germany, where she acted in several films for the Joseph Goebbels-controlled UFA.The 1935 Willi Forst picture Mazurka gained much popularity in Germany and became one of Adolf Hitler‘s favorite films, a fact that gave birth to a rumor in 1937 about Negri having had an affair with Hitler. There was no truth to the rumor. Pola sued a French magazine, Pour Vous, that had circulated the libelous rumor and won her case. Years later director Forst was interviewe
    d
    stating that although Negri still looked attractive, her lifestyle had aged her and she could not be photographed in a tight close-up. He also said she came out of the women’s room with “snow” (cocaine) on her upper lip.Mazurka was remade (almost shot-for-shot) in the U.S. as a Kay Francis picture, Confession. Negri had expressed a desire to return to the States to do the remake but had been turned down. In her autobiography Memoirs of a Star (1970), Negri recounted that with Francis in the lead the picture was a flop.She fled Germany in 1938, after a few Nazi officials labeled her as having “part Jewish” ancestry.[citation needed] She moved to France, and then in 1941 she sailed to New York from Portugal and was temporarily detained at Ellis Island. After her release, she eventually returned to Hollywood. She briefly appeared in the 1943 film Hi Diddle Diddle, though her career was essentially over.After actresses Mae West and Mary Pickford declined the role, director Billy Wilder approached Negri to appear as Norma Desmond in the film, Sunset Boulevard (1950). Wilder recalled that Negri “threw a tantrum at the mere suggestion of playing a has-been”, and the role was given to the more amenable and realistic Gloria Swanson, who became immortalized on celluloid as Norma Desmond.[citation needed]In 1951, Negri became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Her final film appearance was in the Walt Disney film The Moon-Spinners (1964), with Hayley Mills.The same year she received an honorary award from the German film industry for her career work. Negri lived her remaining years in San Antonio, Texas, with her companion, Texan heiress and composer, Margaret West. Negri maintained her flamboyant persona to the end of her life and was often compared to Norma Desmond, the character role she had famously turned down.In a 1973 interview, she said: “Speaking of the 20s and 30s, that was the most extravagant and glamorous era of the film industry. There was hard work and longer hours than at present, but there was dignity, class and great style. Stars didn’t have to worry, as they were on long term contracts and were able to enjoy their vacations without worrying about tomorrow. Few had financial worries due to large incomes and little taxes. Alas, in 1929 came the Stock Market crash and everything changed and became worrisome. People started practicing conservatism because of financial losses, myself included.”[citation needed]


    Pola Negri’s star, Hollywood Boulevard, Hollywood


    Signature and prints of Pola Negri’s hands and feet in front of Grauman’s Chinese Theater, Hollywood, USAShe died on August 1, 1987, at the age of 90. Her death was caused by pneumonia, however she was also suffering from a brain tumor (for which she had refused treatment). At her wake at the Porter Loring Funeral Home in San Antonio, her body was placed on view wearing a yellow golden chiffon dress with a golden turban to match. Her small obituary in the local newspaper read, “she had an international career as a screen and stage actress”.Being of the Catholic faith she was interred in Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles next to her mother, Eleonora. Since she had no children, she left most of her estate to St. Mary’s University in Texas, including several rare prints of her films. In addition, a generous portion of her estate was given to the Polish nuns of the Seraphic Order; a large black and white portrait hangs in the small chapel next to Poland’s patron, Our Lady of Częstochowa, in San Antonio, Texas.Pola Negri has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her contribution to Motion Pictures at 6933 Hollywood Boulevard. She was the 11th star in Hollywood history to place her hand and foot prints in front of Grauman’s Chinese Theatre[4].In 2006, a feature-length documentary about Negri’s life, entitled Pola Negri: Life is a Dream in Cinema, premiered at the Seventh Annual Polish Film Festival of Los Angeles.[5] The documentary is notable for its in-depth interviews with film stars Hayley Mills and Eli Wallach, who were starring actress and supporting actor respectively in the Walt Disney film The Moon-Spinners (1964), Pola Negri’s final film. Pola Negri: Life is a Dream in Cinema has played at Pola Negri retrospective screenings in The United States and Europe, most notably at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York and La Cinémathèque Française in Paris. [6]

    • Silent film
    • Sex symbols

  • ^ a b Votruba, Martin. “Pola Negri”. Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh. http://www.pitt.edu/~votruba/qsonhist/celebrities/negrip.html. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  • ^ Łanucha, Jan. “Od Apolonii do Poli zwanej Politą”. Forum Polonijne 3 (2007): 23. ISSN 1234-2807. 
  • ^ a b Biskupski, M.B.B. (2010) Hollywood’s War With Poland 1939–1945 University Press of Kentucky ISBN 978-0-8131-2559-6 Page 12
  • ^ Polish Cultural Institute.com
  • ^ “Polish Film Festivals.” Polish Music News, April 2006, Vol. 12, No. 4. ISSN 1098-9188. Los Angeles: Polish Music Center, University of Southern California.
  • ^ POLANEGRI.COM’s Pola Negri: Life is a Dream in Cinema page
    • (English) Pola Negri (1970). Memoirs of a Star. New York: Doubleday. p. 453. ASIN B0006C0782. 
    • (Polish) Wiesława Czapińska (1996). Pola Negri – polska królowa Hollywood. Warsaw: Philip Wilson. p. 129. ISBN 83-85840-78-8. 
    • Jerzy Nowakowski “Boska Pola i inni” wyd. TO MY, Warszawa, 2005

    Gil Elvgren


    Weighty Problem [Starting at the Bottom] (1962), a pin-up illustration by Gil ElvgrenGil Elvgren (March 15, 1914 – February 29, 1980), born Gilette Elvgren, was an American painter of pin-up girls, advertising and illustration. Elvgren lived in various locations, and was active from the 1930s to 1970s. Today he is best known for his pin-up paintings for Brown & Bigelow. Elvgren studied at the American Academy of Art.Elvgren was one of the most important pin-up and glamour artists of the twentieth century. In addition, he was a classical American illustrator. He was a master of portraying the all-American ideal feminine, but he wasn’t limited to the calendar pin-up industry. He was strongly influenced by the early “pretty girl” illustrators, such as Charles Dana Gibson, Andrew Loomis, and Howard Chandler Christy. Other influences included the Brandywine School founded by Howard Pyle.Elvgren was a commercial success. His clients ranged from Brown and Bigelow and Coca-Cola to General Electric and Sealy Mattress Company. In addition, during the 1940s and 1950s he illustrated stories for a host of magazines, such as The Saturday Evening Post and Good Housekeeping.Elvgren’s paintings today are valuable and highly sought-after. His painting Fascination set a record for any work by the artist when it sold for $262,900 in a Heritage Auction in June 2008. [1]

    • Pin-up girl
    • List of pin-up artists

    • The Great American Pin-Up, by Charles G. Martignette and Louis K. Meisel, ISBN 3-8228-1701-5
    • Gil Elvgren, by Charles G. Martignette and Louis K. Meisel, ISBN 978-3-8228-2930-1
  • ^ http://grapefruitmoongallery.com/sold-items/449.shtml
  • Pamela Green

    (1929-03-28)[1]
    Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, England, UK Died May 7, 2010 (aged 81), Isle of Wight, England, UK Alias(es) Rita Landre, Princess Sonmar Harricks

    Pamela Green (March 28, 1929, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, England – May 7, 2010[2][1]) was an English glamour model and actress, best known at the end of the 1950s and early 1960s. She modeled for Zoltán Glass, Horace Roye, and John Everard.

    Contents

    Born as Phyllis Pamela Green, she started figure modelling to pay for her art school studies and moved on to photographic modelling because it paid more. Early in her career Pamela Green was photographed by Bill Brandt (while still at art college), Zoltán Glass and Angus McBean.In 1954 Pamela started to supply the bookshops and newsagents of London’s Soho with her own postcard sets of glamour photographs, to supplement her work as a photographer’s model. In 1955 Luxor Press published a pictorial monograph on Pamela featuring the photographs of George Harrison Marks, entitled Pamela. Her rising profile prompted her to set up Kamera Publications Ltd with George.With her as Managing Director, they produced several magazines, with Kamera being the most successful. It was the first glamour magazine of any note in the UK, and heralded the top-shelf magazine industry in the country. As their success grew they ventured into 8mm cine film production.Following her divorce from Guy Hillier, she moved in with Harrison Marks and took his name, but there is doubt over whether they actually married. In 1961 she split with Harrison Marks and eventually the business was wound up; Kamera ceased publication in 1968. He always acknowledged his debt to Pamela Green and said in his biography The Naked Truth, “Pam set me up. She started it all.”She starred in Michael Powell‘s psychological thriller Peeping Tom (1960). In 1964 she appeared in an episode of This Week.Green continued to model for the photographer Douglas Webb, her last husband, a former war hero of the Dambusters raid. She became Webb’s camera stills assistant and worked for the major movie companies in London. In 1986 and Webb moved to the Isle of Wight.

    Pamela Green died from leukaemia, aged 81, on the Isle of Wight on May 7, 2010.

    • Peeping Tom (1960)
    • Naked as Nature Intended (1961)
    • The Day the Earth Caught Fire (1961)
    • The Chimney Sweeps (1963)
    • The Naked World of Harrison Marks (1966)
    • Legend of the Werewolf (1975) (uncredited)

  • ^ a b Ancestry.com. England & Wales, Birth Index: 1916-2005 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008. Original data: General Register Office. England and Wales Civil Registration Indexes. London, England: General Register Office.
  • ^ “Pamela Green: actress and model”. TimesOnline. 15 May 2010. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article7126983.ece. Retrieved 15 May 2010. 
  • Kim Novak

    Kim Novak


    Novak in 2004 Born Marilyn Pauline Novak
    February 13, 1933 (1933-02-13) (age 77)
    Chicago, Illinois, United States Years active 1954–1991 Spouse Richard Johnson (1965–1966)
    Dr. Robert Malloy (1976–present)

    Kim Novak (born February 13, 1933) is an American actress. She is best known for her performance in the classic 1958 film Vertigo. Novak retired from acting in 1991 and has since become an accomplished artist of oil paintings.[1] She currently lives with her veterinarian husband on a ranch in Eagle Point, Oregon, where they raise livestock.[2]

    Contents

    Kim Novak was born Marilyn Pauline Novak in Chicago, Illinois, to Joseph Novak and Blanche Marie Novak (nee Král). Her parents were second-generation Czech immigrants. Her father was a railroad clerk and former teacher and her mother was also a former teacher.While attending Farragut High Academy, she won a scholarship to the Art Institute of Chicago. After leaving school, she began a career modeling teen fashions for a local department store. She later received a scholarship at a modeling academy and continued to model part-time. She worked as an elevator operator, a sales clerk and a dental assistant.After a job touring the country as a spokesman for a refrigerator manufacturer, “Miss Deepfreeze,” Novak moved to Los Angeles, where she continued to find work as a model.[3]

    The 20-year-old actress began with an uncredited role in The French Line (1954). Eventually, she was seen by a Columbia Pictures talent agent and filmed a screen test. Novak was signed to a six-month contract, and the studio changed her first name to Kim. Novak debuted as Lona McLane that same year in Pushover opposite Fred MacMurray and Philip Carey, and played the femme fatale role as Janis in Phffft! opposite Judy Holliday, Jack Lemmon, and Jack Carson. Novak’s reviews were good . People were eager to see the new star, and she received an enormous amount of fan mail .


    Kim Novak singing “My Funny Valentine‘ in Pal Joey)After playing Madge Owens in Picnic (1955) opposite William Holden, Novak won a Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer and for World Film Favorite. She was also nominated for the British BAFTA Film Award for Best Foreign Actress. That same year she played Molly in The Man with the Golden Arm with Frank Sinatra. In 1957 she worked with Sinatra again for Pal Joey, which also starred Rita Hayworth, and starred in Jeanne Eagels with Jeff Chandler. She was on the cover of the July 29, 1957, issue of Time Magazine. That same year, she went on strike, protesting her salary of $1,250 per week.In 1958, Novak starred in the Alfred Hitchcock-directed classic thriller Vertigo, playing the role of a brunette shopgirl, Judy Barton, who masquerades as a blonde woman named Madeleine Elster as part of a murder scheme.Today, the film is considered a masterpiece of romantic suspense, though Novak’s performance has a mixed reputation. Critic David Shipman thought it “little more than competent”,[4] while David Thomson sees it as “one of the major female performances in the cinema”.[5] Hitchcock, rarely one to praise actors, dismissed Novak in a later interview. “You think you’re getting a lot,” he said of her ability, “but you’re not.”[citation needed]


    Kim Novak in VertigoThat same year she starred in Bell, Book and Candle, a comedy tale of modern-day witchcraft that did not do well at the box office. In 1960, she co-starred with Kirk Douglas in the critically acclaimed Strangers When We Meet also featuring Walter Matthau and Ernie Kovacs. In 1962, Novak produced her own movie, financing her own production company in association with Filmways Productions. Boys’ Night Out, in which she starred with James Garner and Tony Randall. It was not received well either by critics or the public. She was paired with Lemmon for a third and final time that year in a mystery-comedy, The Notorious Landlady.In 1964 she played the vulgar waitress Mildred Rogers in a remake of W. Somerset Maugham‘s drama Of Human Bondage opposite Laurence Harvey, and starred in Billy Wilder‘s Kiss Me, Stupid with Ray Walston and Dean Martin. After playing the title role in The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders (1965) with Richard Johnson, Novak took a break from Hollywood acting. She continued to act, although infrequently, taking fewer roles as she began to prefer personal activities over acting[6][7]Her comeback came in a dual role as a young actress, Elsa Brinkmann, and an early-day movie goddess who was murdered, Lylah Clare, in producer-director Robert Aldrich‘s The Legend of Lylah Clare (1968) with Peter Finch and Ernest Borgnine for MGM. The movie did not do well . After playing a forger, Sister Lyda Kebanov, in The Great Bank Robbery (1969) opposite Zero Mostel, Clint Walker, and Claude Akins, she stayed away from the screen for another four years. She then played the role of Auriol Pageant in the horror anthology film Tales That Witness Madness (1973) opposite Joan Collins. She starred as veteran showgirl Gloria Joyce in the made-for-TV movie The Third Girl From the Left (1973), and played Eva in Satan’s Triangle (1975). She was featured in the 1977 western The White Buffalo with Charles Bronson, and in 1979 she played Helga in Just a Gigolo co-starring David Bowie.In 1980, Novak played Lola Brewster in the mystery/thriller The Mirror Crack’d, based on the story by Agatha Christie and co-starring Angela Lansbury, Tony Curtis, Rock Hudson and Elizabeth Taylor. She and Taylor portrayed rival actresses. She made occasional television appearances over the years. She co-starred with James Coburn in the TV-movie Malibu (1
    98
    3) and played Rosa in a revival of Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1985) opposite Melanie Griffith. From 1986 to 1987, the actress was a cast member of the television series Falcon Crest during its fourth season, playing the mysterious character Kit Marlowe (the stage name rejected at the start of her career). She co-starred with Ben Kingsley in the 1990 film The Children.Her most recent appearance on the big screen to date came as a terminally ill writer with a mysterious past in the thriller Liebestraum (1991), opposite Kevin Anderson and Bill Pullman. However, owing to battles with the director over how to play the role, her scenes were cut . Novak later admitted in a 2004 interview that the film was a mistake. She said”I got so burned out on that picture that I wanted to leave the business, but then if you wait long enough you think, ‘Oh, I miss certain things.’ The making of a movie is wonderful. What’s difficult is afterward when you have to go around and try to sell it. The actual filming, when you have a good script—which isn’t often—nothing beats it.”[8].In an interview with Stephen Rebello in the July 2005 issue of Movieline’s Hollywood Life, Novak admitted that she had been “unprofessional” in her conduct with the film’s director, Mike Figgis .Novak has not ruled out further acting. In an interview in 2007, she said that she would consider returning to the screen “if the right thing came along.”[9]Novak will appear for a question-and-answer session about her career on July 30, 2010, at the Egyptian Theatre in Los Angeles, where the American Cinematheque is hosting a tribute to her coinciding with the August 3 DVD release of “The Kim Novak Collection.”[10]

    For her contribution to motion pictures, Novak was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 6332 Hollywood Boulevard.In 1995, Novak was ranked 92nd by Empire Magazine on a list of the 100 sexiest stars in film history. In 1955, she won the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer-Female. In 1957, she won another Golden Globe–for World Favorite female actress. In 1997, Kim won an Honorary Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival. In 2002 a Lifetime Achievement Award was presented to Novak by Eastman Kodak.New York rock band The Velvet Underground had a song about Kim Novak on their album Loaded, called “New Age“.In 2005, British fashion designer Alexander McQueen named his first It bag the Novak.[11]

    Novak has been married to veterinarian Dr. Robert Malloy since March 12, 1976. The couple resides on a ranch where they raise horses and llamas. Novak has two stepchildren.[12]Novak was previously married to English actor Richard Johnson from March 15, 1965, to April 23, 1966. The two have remained friends . Novak also dated Sammy Davis, Jr., in the late 1950s and actor Michael Brandon in the 1970s.[13][14] She was engaged to director Richard Quine in the early 1960s.[15]On July 24, 2000, her home in Eagle Point, Oregon, was partially destroyed by fire.[16] Novak lost scripts, several paintings, and a computer containing the only draft of her unfinished autobiography.[16] Of the loss Novak said:”I take it personally as a sign that maybe I’m not supposed to write my biography; maybe the past is supposed to stay buried. It made me realize then what was really valuable. That’s the day I wrote a gratitude list. We’re safe and our animals are safe.”[16]In December 2001, her home in Oregon was robbed of more than $200,000 worth of firearms and tools. Three men were arrested and charged with burglary, theft, and criminal conspiracy.[17]In 2006, Novak was injured in a horseback riding accident. She suffered a punctured lung, broken ribs, and nerve damage but made a full recovery within a year.[9]Novak is an artist who paints in watercolor and oil as well as creating sculpture, stained glass design, poetry, and photography.[18]

    • The French Line (1954) (uncredited)
    • Pushover (1954)
    • Phffft! (1954)
    • Son of Sinbad (1955) (uncredited)
    • 5 Against the House (1955)
    • Picnic (1955)
    • The Man with the Golden Arm (1955)
    • The Eddy Duchin Story (1956)
    • Jeanne Eagels (1957)
    • Pal Joey (1957)
    • Vertigo (1958)
    • Bell, Book and Candle (1958)
    • Middle of the Night (1959)
    • Strangers When We Meet (1960)
    • The Notorious Landlady (1962)
    • Boys’ Night Out (1962)
    • Of Human Bondage (1964)
    • Kiss Me, Stupid (1964)
    • The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders (1965)
    • The Legend of Lylah Clare (1968)
    • The Great Bank Robbery (1969)
    • Tales That Witness Madness (1973)
    • The Third Girl From the Left (1973)
    • Satan’s Triangle (1975)
    • The White Buffalo (1977)
    • Just a Gigolo (1979)
    • The Mirror Crack’d (1980)
    • Malibu (1985)
    • Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1980)
    • Falcon Crest (TV series, 19 episodes; 1986–87)
    • I Have Been Very Pleased (1987) (short subject)
    • The Children (1990)
    • Liebestraum (1991)

  • ^ http://www.mailtribune.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100521/NEWS/5210325
  • ^ Animal Magnetism, Personal Success – Kim Novak; http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20142557,00.html
  • ^ Biography of Kim Novak
  • ^ David Shipman The Great Movie Stars: The International Years, 1989, London: Macdonald, p441
  • ^ David Thomson The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, 2002, London: Little, Brown, p640
  • ^ Ben Mankiewicz, Turner Classic Movies, aired July 26, 2009.
  • Spotlight, TCM This Month, retrieved 7/26/09
  • ^ http://www.seattlepi.com/movies/173415_kimnovak15.html>
  • ^ a b Army Archerd: “Novak talks of quitting” (July 24, 1967)
  • ^ http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/homeentertainment/la-et-novak-20100710,0,3103265.story
  • ^ “How The Times tracked Alexander McQueens career”. The Times (London). February 11, 2010. http://women.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/fashion/article7023669.ece. Retrieved May 7, 2010. 
  • ^ Transcript CNN Larry King Live (January 5, 2004)
  • ^ Michael Brandon mentions his relationship with Kim Novak on his official website, http://www.michaelbrandon.net/persbiog.html
  • ^ Photos of Kim Novak and former boyfriend Michael Brandon on and off the set http://wireimage.com/SearchResults.aspx?igi=131285&s=kim%20novak&cbi=18780&sfld=C&vwmd=e
  • ^ Jonathan Rosenbaum: “Kim Novak as Midwestern Independent”
  • ^ a b c Martin, Melissa (July 25, 2000). “Kim Novak’s home burns”. Mail Tribune. http://archive.mailtribune.com/archive/2000/july/072500n2.htm. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 
  • ^ http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/participant.jsp?spid=142407&apid=94121
  • ^ http://cowboyartistsofamerica.com/news-events/harley_browns_meet_kim_novak_in_iinternational_artist_magazine_i/news/
    • Barnett, Vincent L. (2007). “Dualling for Judy: The concept of the double in the films of Kim Novak”. Film History (Indiana University Press) 19 (1): 86–101. 

    Hajime Sorayama

    Hajime Sorayama (空山基, Sorayama Hajime, born February 22, 1947) is a Japanese illustrator, known for his precisely detailed, erotic airbrush portrayals of women and feminine robots.

    Contents

    Hajime Sorayama was born in 1947 in Imabari, Ehime prefecture, Japan.[1] He received his basic education at Imabari Kita High School. In 1965 he was admitted to the Shikoku Gakuin University,[2] where he began to study Greek and English literature.[3] In 1967, after the publication of his first work, Pink Journal, he transferred to Tokyo‘s Chuo Art School where he began to study art.Sorayama graduated in 1968 at the age of 21, and gained an appointment in an advertising agency. He became a freelance illustrator in 1972.[4] In 1978 he drew his first robot. He resides in Tokyo.[5]

    Sorayama’s work Sexy Robot, published by Genko-sha in 1983,[6] made his organic robotic forms famous around the world. For the work, he used ideas from pin-up art, which in the book then appear as chrome-plated gynoids in suggestive poses. His next book, Pin-up (Graphic-sha, 1984), continue in the same line. A number of his other works similarly revolve around figures in suggestive poses, including highly realistic depictions in latex and leather.In 1985 Sorayama published the video Illustration Video,[7] his first work apart from the books of illustrations. This includes works in the movies “Brain Dead” (1992), “Time Cop” (1994) and “Space Trucker” (1995), design of trading cards, limited edition prints, CD Roms, art exhibitions and the initial industrial design for Sony‘s AIBO robotic pet.[8]From 1985 to 2010 has been a very busy period for Sorayama who is releasing his new book Master Works in late spring of 2010. There were some important issues of cloudy title and copyright matters that may be understood from reading news reports, PACER court records and this fully referenced article [http://knol.google.com/k/art-sorayama-v-tamara-bane-gallery-and-robert-bane# ] which details the art fraud case of Sorayama V. Tamara Bane Gallery and Robert S. Bane. For more specific information, one may contact the official [website http://www.sorayama.net]

    • Pink Journal (1967)
    • Sexy Robot (1983, Genko-sha)
    • Pin-up (1984, Graphic-sha)
    • Venus Odyssey (1985, Ed. Tokuma communications)
    • Hajime Sorayama (1989, Taco, Berlín)
    • Sorayama Hyper Illustrations (1 & 2) (1989, Bijutsu Shuppan-sha)
    • The Gynoids (1993, Edition Treville)
    • Naga (1997, Sakuhin-sha)
    • Torquere (1998, Sakuhin-sha)
    • Sorayama 1964-99. The Complete Works (1999, Sakuhin-sha)
    • The Gynoids genetically manipulated (2000, Edition Treville)
    • Gynoids reborn (2000, Edition Treville)
    • Sorayamart (2000, Ed. Soleil)
    • Moira (2000, Edition Kunst der Comics)
    • Metallicon (2001, Sakuhin-sha)
    • The Gynoids. The Storage Box (2002, Edition Treville)
    • Venom (2002, Graphic-sha)
    • Latex Galatea (2003, Editions Treville)
    • Relativision (2006)[9][10]
    • “Sorayama’s Master Works”, (late spring 2010 release) [11]

    “By contrast, superrealism deals with the technical issue of how close one can get to one’s object.””Unlike art, illustration is not a matter of emotion or hatreds, but an experience that comes naturally through logical thinking.”[12]

    Constructs such as ibid. and loc. cit. are discouraged by Wikipedia’s style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title.

  • ^ Sorayama’s official biography http://www.sorayama.net/html/47_78.html
  • ^ Ibid. http://www.sorayama.net/html/47_78.html
  • ^ http://www.thepinupfiles.com/sorayama.html
  • ^ Sorayama’s official biography http://www.sorayama.net/html/47_78.html
  • ^ Sorayama’s biography in “thepinupfiles” http://www.thepinupfiles.com/sorayama.html
  • ^ http://www.sorayama.net/html/1980s.html
  • ^ http://www.sorayama.net/html/1980s.html
  • ^ http://www.sorayama.net/html/1990s.html
  • ^ http://www.sorayama.net/artist_bio/biography.html
  • ^ http://www.sorayama.com /en/?page_id=5 artist bibliography
  • ^ http://www.sorayama.net/
  • ^ http://www.thepinupfiles.com/sorayama.html
  • Linda Darnell

    Linda Darnell


    from Blood and Sand (1941) Born Monetta Eloyse Darnell
    October 16, 1923(1923-10-16)
    Dallas, Texas, U.S. Died April 10, 1965 (aged 41)
    Glenview, Illinois, U.S. Occupation Actress Years active 1939–1965 Spouse(s) J. Peverell Marley (m. 1942–1951) «start: (1942)–end+1: (1952)»”Marriage: J. Peverell Marley to Linda Darnell” Location: (linkback:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linda_Darnell)
    Phillip Liebmann (m. 1954–1955) «start: (1954)–end+1: (1956)»”Marriage: Phillip Liebmann to Linda Darnell” Location: (linkback:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linda_Darnell)
    Merle Roy Robertson (m. 1957–1963) «start: (1957)–end+1: (1964)»”Marriage: Merle Roy Robertson to Linda Darnell” Location: (linkback:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linda_Darnell)

    Linda Darnell (October 16, 1923 – April 10, 1965) was an American film actress.Darnell was a model as a child, and progressed to theater and film acting as an adolescent. At the encouragement of her mother, she made her first film in 1939, and appeared in supporting roles in big budget films for 20th Century Fox throughout the 1940s. She rose to fame with co-starring roles opposite Tyrone Power in adventure films and established a main character career after her role in Forever Amber (1947). Furthermore, she won critical acclaim for her work in Unfaithfully Yours (1948) and A Letter to Three Wives (1949).Notorious for her unstable personal life, Darnell was incapable of dealing with Hollywood, and landed in a downward spiral of alcoholism, unsuccessful marriages and highly publicized or scandalous affairs.[1] She failed to receive recognition from the industry and its critics, and disappeared from the screen in the 1950s. Darnell died from burns sustained in a house fire.

    Contents

    Born Monetta Eloyse Darnell in Dallas, Texas, as one of four children (excluding two children of Pearl from an earlier marriage), to postal clerk Calvin Roy Darnell and Pearl Brown. She was the younger sister of Undeen, born in March 1918, and the older sister of Monte Maloya (born 1929) and Calvin Roy, Jr. (born 1930). Her parents were not happily married, and she grew up as a shy and reserved girl in a house of domestic turmoil.[1]:15 Starting at an early age, her mother Pearl had big plans for Darnell in the entertainment industry.[2] Her mother believed that Darnell was her only child with potential as an actress, and ignored the raising of her other children.According to her siblings, Darnell enjoyed the limelight and shared her mother’s dream.[1]:19 Darnell herself, though, once commented: “Mother really shoved me along, spotting me in one contest after another. I had no great talent, and I didn’t want to be a movie star particularly. But Mother had always wanted it for herself, and I guess she attained it through me.”[1]:26 One elocution teacher recalled: “[Darnell] didn’t stand out particularly, except that she was so sweet and considerate. In her theater work she wasn’t outstanding. But her mother was right behind her everywhere she went.”[1]:20Unlike her husband, Pearl had a notorious reputation in the neighborhood of being “aggressive” or “downright mean”.[1]:17 Despite some financial problems, Darnell insisted on having had a joyful childhood and loving parents.[3] Darnell was a model by the age of 11 and was acting on the stage by the age of 13. She initially started modeling to save money for the household,[3] and performed mostly in beauty contests.Before leaving school for Hollywood, Darnell was a student at Sunset High School, which she entered in September 1937, majoring in Spanish and art.[4] She did not have a lot in common with her peers and usually spent her time at home as a teen, working under the guidance of her mother.[1]:19 In 1936, she entered The Dallas Little Theater and was cast in the southwestern premiere of Murder in the Cathedral.[1]:22 The same year, she was hired as one of the hostesses at the Texas Centennial Exposition.[1]:26–27In November 1937, a talent scout for 20th Century Fox arrived in Dallas, looking for new faces. Encouraged by her mother, Darnell met him, and after a few months he invited her for a screen test in Hollywood.[1]:29 Arriving in California alongside Mary Healy and Dorris Bowdon in February 1938, Darnell was initially rejected by film studios and was sent home because she was declared “too young”.

    Although originally wanting to become an actress on the stage, Darnell was featured in a “Gateway to Hollywood” talent-search and initially landed a contract at RKO Pictures.[3] There was no certainty, though, and Darnell soon returned to Dallas. When 20th Century Fox offered her a part, Darnell wanted to accept, but RKO was unwilling to release her.[3] Nevertheless, by age 15, she was signed to a contract at 20th Century Fox and moved to a small apartment in Hollywood all alone on April 5, 1939.[5] With production beginning in April 1939, she featured in her first film Hotel for Women in 1939, which had newspapers immediately hail her the newest star of Hollywood.[3] Loretta Young was originally assigned to play the role, but demanded a salary which the studio would not give her. Darryl F. Zanuck instead cast Darnell “because he felt that the name would advertise
    h
    er beauty and suggest a Latin quality that matched her coloring.”[1]:41Although only 15 at the time, Darnell posed as 17-year-old, and was listed as 19-year-old by the studio.[3] According to columnist Louella O. Parsons, Darnell was “so young, so immature and so naive in her ideas” and was very loyal to her boss, Darryl F. Zanuck.[3] Her true age came out later in 1939, and she became one of the few actresses under the age of 16 to serve as leading ladies in films.[6] While working on Hotel for Women, Darnell was cast alongside Henry Fonda and Claudette Colbert in Drums Along the Mohawk (1939) in June 1939.[7] She was later replaced, because the studio felt her role was not important enough. In an interview during production of Hotel for Women, which lasted until June, Darnell admitted that movie making was not what she expected: “I’m learning what really hard work is. At home in Dallas I used to sprawl on the lawn and dream about the nice, easy time the screen stars must be having in Hollywood, but the last two months have taught me quite another story.”[1]:43Since the beginning of her career at 20th Century Fox, Darnell had been very positive on her frequent co-star Tyrone Power. In a 1939 interview, she expressed her interest in starring opposite Power in Johnny Apollo (1940).[3] In motivating why she was not cast, Darnell said: “It’s a man’s part and the girl’s role is only incidental.”[3] Dorothy Lamour was cast instead. Nevertheless, Darnell had her way as she was assigned in the female lead opposite Power in the light romantic comedy Day-Time Wife (1939). Although the film received only slightly favorable reviews, Darnell’s performance was received positively, with one critic saying: “Despite her apparent youth, [Darnell] turns in an outstanding performance when playing with popular players.”[8] Another critic wrote that “little Linda is not only a breath-taking eyeful but a splendid actress as well.”[9] Furthermore, the film brought the actress a lot of media attention. Following the film’s release, she was cast in the drama comedy Star Dust in December 1939.[10] The film was hailed as one of the “most original entertainment idea in years” and boosted Darnell’s popularity, being nicknamed ‘Hollywood’s loveliest and most exciting star’.[11] Variety continued: “Miss Darnell displays a wealth of youthful charm and personality that confirms studio efforts to build her to a draw personality.”[1]:53 Her studio contract had been revised to allow Darnell to earn $200 a week.[1]:52

    At first, everything was like a fairy tale coming true. I stepped into a fabulous land where, overnight, I was a movie star. In pictures you’re built up by everyone. On the set, in the publicity office, wherever you go, everyone says you’re wonderful. It gives you a false sense of security. You waltz through a role, and everywhere you hear that you are beautiful and lovely, a natural-born actress. You believe what people around you say.[1]:51

    After leading several small films, Darnell was cast in her first big-budget film in May 1940, appearing again opposite Tyrone Power in Brigham Young (1940), which was shot on location in mid-1940 and was regarded the most expensive film 20th Century Fox had yet produced.[1]:55 Darnell and Power were cast together for the second time due to the box office success of Day-Time Wife, and they became a highly publicized onscreen couple, which prompted Darryl F. Zanuck to add 18 more romantic scenes to Brigham Young.[12] The film’s director, Henry Hathaway, in later life had only slight memories of Darnell and recalled that “a sweeter girl never lived.”[1]:55 By June 1940, shortly after completing Brigham Young, Darnell achieved stardom and earned “a weekly salary larger than most bank officials.”[13]In the summer of 1940, Darnell began working on The Mark of Zorro (1940), in which she again co-starred as Power’s sweetheart in a role for which Anne Baxter was previously considered.[1]:58 A big budget adventure film that was raved by the critics, The Mark of Zorro was a box office sensation and did much to enhance Darnell’s star status.[1]:58 Afterwards, she was paired with Henry Fonda for the first time in the western Chad Hanna (1940), her first Technicolor film. The film received only little attention, unlike Darnell’s next film Blood and Sand (1941), which was shot on location in Mexico. Although re-teamed with Power, she did not play his romantic interest. It was the first film for which she was widely critically acclaimed.[1]:63 Nevertheless, Darnell later claimed that her downfall began after Blood and Sand. In an interview she said:”People got tired of seeing the sweet young things I was playing and I landed at the bottom of the roller coaster. The change and realization were very subtle. I’d had the fame and money every girl dreams about–and the romance. I’d crammed thirty years into ten, and while it was exciting and I would do it over again, I still know I missed out on my girlhood, the fun, little things that now seem important.”[1]:63–64The studio was unable to find Darnell suitable roles. In late 1940, Fox chose her for the main role in Song of the Islands (1942), a Hawaiian musical film which eventually starred Betty Grable.[14] After Blood and Sand, she was set to co-star with Claudette Colbert in Remember the Day (1941), but another actress was eventually cast.[1]:65 Meanwhile, she was considered for the female lead in Swamp Water (1941), but Anne Baxter was later assigned in the role. Darnell was disappointed and felt rejected, and later said: “Right under your very nose someone else is brought in for that prize part you wanted so terribly.”[1]:65 Months passed by without any work, and in August 1941 she was cast in a supporting role in the musical Rise and Shine (1941). The film was a setback in her career, and she was rejected for a later role because she refused to respond to Darryl F. Zanuck’s advances.[1]:67–68 Instead, she contributed to war effort, working for the Red Cross, selling war bonds, and she was a regular at the Hollywood Canteen.

    In early 1942, Darnell filmed The Loves of Edgar Allan Poe, another film that would not do much to improve her career. Meanwhile, she realized that Darryl F. Zanuck had lost interest in her, and she was overlooked for most film roles that suited her.[1]:69 Instead, she was cast in roles that she loathed, including the musical Orchestra Wives (1942).[15] Zanuck insisted that she took the role, but was r

    eplaced by Ann Rutherford after twelve days of shooting. The press reported that “Linda Darnell and Twentieth Century-Fox aren’t on the best of terms at the moment.”[1]:69 As a punishment, she was loaned out to another studio for a supporting role in a B movie called City Without Men. According to co-star Rosemary DeCamp, Darnell nevertheless was “very polite”, and she was satisfied to work at a studio which did not treat her as a child.[1]:73 In April 1943, she was put on suspension, which meant being replaced in the Technicolor musical film The Gang’s All Here (1943). By this time, Darnell had eloped, which caused Zanuck to be in even more fury.[1]:75


    Linda Darnell in a May 1944 pin-up photo for Yank, the Army Weekly.In 1943, she was cast, uncredited, as the Virgin Mary in The Song of Bernadette. By late 1943, Darnell was fed up with critics only praising her beauty, rather than her acting abilities. Judging her performance in Sweet and Low-Down (1944), in which she co-starred with Lynn Bari, one critic of the Los Angeles Examiner wrote: “Lynn comes off the best because she has more of a chance to shine. Linda just doesn’t have enough to do – but looks beautiful doing it.”[1]:81 Darnell was reduced to second leads and was overlooked for big budget productions. Matters changed when she was named one of the four most beautiful women in Hollywood, along with Hedy Lamarr, Ingrid Bergman and Gene Tierney in a 1944 edition of Look magazine.[1]:82 Afterwards, the studio consented her to be loaned out for the lead in Summer Storm. Portraying a ‘seductive peasant girl who takes three men to their ruin before she herself is murdered’[1]:82, it was a type of role she had never before been attached to. In a later interview, Darnell commented:”I was told that such a violent change of type might ruin my career, but I insisted on taking the chance. [..] This is one picture on which I am setting much store for the future. For eighteen months I did nothing in pictures. I pleaded for something to do, but nothing happened. The character in the Chekhov film is a wild sort of she-devil, which any actress would go miles to play. She’s devil mostly–at times angelic–and perfectly fascinating to interpret. I’m counting on my Russian girl to give me a new start.”[1]:82–83Released in 1944, the film provided her a new screen image as a pin-up girl. Shortly after, Darnell was again loaned out to portray a showgirl in The Great John L., the first film to feature her bare legs.[1]:83 Darnell complained that the studio lacked in recognition of her, which prodded Darryl F. Zanuck to cast her in Hangover Square (1945), playing a role she personally had chosen.[1]:84 The film became a great success, and with Darnell’s triumph assured, she was allowed to abandon her upcoming film Don Juan Quilligan (1945), which would have been another low point in her career.[1]:84 In January 1945, she was added to the cast of the film noir Fallen Angel (1945), which also included Dana Andrews and Alice Faye. Despite suffering from the “terryfing” director Otto Preminger, Darnell completed the film and was praised by reviewers so widely, that there was even talks of an Oscar nomination.[1]:89 Due to her score with Fallen Angel, she was cast opposite Tyrone Power in Captain from Castile in December 1945,[16] on the insistence of Joseph L. Mankiewicz.[17] Although she looked forward to the film project, believing it would be her most important to date[1]:90, she was later replaced by newcomer Jean Peters due to scheduling conflicts, a decision she resented.[1]:134In 1946, Darnell filmed two pictures simultaneously, the highly expensive budgeted Anna and the King of Siam and Preminger’s Centennial Summer. During the release of the latter, she was on location in Monument Valley for the filming of the classic western My Darling Clementine (1946), playing a role for which she lost twelve pounds. She was assigned to a negligible role by Zanuck, which displeased the film’s director, John Ford, who felt that she was not suitable.[18]


    from A Letter to Three Wives (1949)In 1947, Darnell won the starring role in the highly anticipated movie Forever Amber, based on a bestselling historical novel that was denounced as being immoral at that time.[19] The character, Amber, was so named because of her hair color, and this is the only major film in which Darnell—normally known for her raven hair and somewhat Latin looks—appears as a redhead. It was the most expensive film yet produced by Fox, and publicity at the time compared the novel Forever Amber to Gone with the Wind.[20] Darnell replaced British actress Peggy Cummins in July 1946 at a cost of $350,000.[21] Because $1 million had already been spent on production costs when Darnell was brought in, the pressure was high to make the film a financial success. Her casting was a result of a campaign for stronger roles.[21] Regardless, she was surprised to find out that she was assigned, because she had been intensively rehearsing for Captain from Castile by the time. Although having to give up that role and working with Otto Preminger, she was delighted to play the title role and thought she was “the luckiest girl in Hollywood.”[1]:98The search for the actress to portray Amber, a beauty who uses men to make her fortune in 17th-century England, was modeled on the extensive process that led to the casting of Vivien Leigh as Scarlett O’Hara. Production demanded a lot from Darnell. She was again put on a diet and was assigned to a voice coach to learn how to speak with an English accent. In addition, she spent hours in fittings for costume changes.[1]:98 Darnell was certain that Forever Amber would be her ticket to stardom, and told reporters:”My first seven years in Hollywood were a series of discouraging struggles for me. For a while it looked as though the Darnell-versus-Hollywood tussle was going to find Darnell coming out second best. The next seven years aren’t going to be the same.”[1]:99Darnell made long hours at the studio during filming, and according to her older sister she started loathing Premminger, which did not ease production. This and the heavy dieting resulted in exhaustion and a serious illness in November 1946.[1]:100 Her shooting schedule lasted until March 1947, and she collapsed on the set two times in the meanwhile. Forever Amber did not live up to its hype, and although it became a success at the box office, most reviewers agreed that the film was a disappointment.[22] Darnell was letdown by the film’s influence and did not achieve the fame she longed for.[1]:114 For A Letter to Three Wives, Darnell was widely tipped to win an Academy Award nomination for this part, but, when this did not happen, her career began to wane. She was cast opposite Richard Widmark and Veronica Lake in Slattery’s Hurricane (1949), which she experienced as a tumble from the height she had reached with A Letter to Three Wives, even though it did well at the box office.

    Aside from her co-starring role opposite Richard Widmark and Sidney Poitier in the groundbreaking No Way Out (1950), directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, which she later called “the only good picture [she] ever made”, her later films were rarely noteworthy, and her appearances were increasingly sporadic thereafter. Further hampering Darnell’s career was the actress’s alcoholism and weight gain. Her next film was a western, Two Flags West (1950). Due to her allergy to horses, she loathed making westerns, and in addition to her complaints about her “colorless” role, she disliked her co-stars Joseph Cotten and Cornel Wilde.[1]:121 She was even less enthusiastic about her next film The 13th Letter (1951), which reunited her with Otto Preminger, and she only took the role because it was an unglamorous one. Shortly after its release, she was put on suspension for refusing a role in the film The Guy Who Came Back (1951) opposite Paul Douglas and Joan Bennett, because it felt “too similar.” She later consented to take on the glamor role, but refused to bleach her hair for it.[1]:124On March 21, 1951, Darnell signed a new contract with 20th Century Fox that allowed her to become a freelance actress. Her first film outside 20th Century Fox was for Universal Pictures, The Lady Pays Off (1951), after Douglas Sirk requested her for the lead role.[23] She was responsible for putting the film behind schedule, because on the fifth day of shooting she learned that Ivan Kahn, the guy responsible for her breakthrough, had died. After The Lady Pays Off, Darnell headed the cast of Saturday Island (1952), which was filmed on location in Jamaica in late 1951. Here, Darnell fell ill and had to be quarantined for several weeks. Because her contract permitted her to make one film a year for the studio, she reported to the lot of 20th Century Fox in March 1952, and was cast in the film noir Night Without Sleep (1952). It was the only time that she had to live up to this part of her contract, though, since she was released from it in September 1952, most likely because the competition of television forced studios all over Hollywood to drop actors.[24]This news initially excited Darnell, because it permitted her to focus on her film career in Europe. She soon realized, though, that the ease and protection enjoyed under contract was gone, and she came to resent 20th Century Fox and Zanuck:”Suppose you’d been earning $4,000 to $5,000 a week for years. Suddenly you were fired and no one would hire you at any figure remotely comparable to your previous salary. I thought in a little while I’d get offers from other studios, but not many came along. The only thing I knew how to do was be a movie star. No one expects to last forever in this business. You know that sooner or later the studio’s going to let you go. But who wants to be retired at twenty-nine?”[1]:131Before traveling to Italy for a two-picture deal with Giuseppe Amato, Darnell was rushed into the production of Blackbeard the Pirate (1952), which – much to Darnell’s distress – went far behind schedule. She arrived in Italy in August 1952, and started filming Angels of Darkness (1954) in February the next year. Due to a delay in the middle of production, she was sent back to Hollywood, and there accepted an offer from Howard Hughes to star in RKO’s 3-D film Second Chance (1953), filmed in Mexico. Afterwards, she flew back to Rome to complete Angels of Darkness, in which she spoke Italian.Darnell resorted to television work and she returned to the stage. Darnell’s last work as an actress was in a stage production in Atlanta in early 1965.[25]

    Since Darnell was underage when she arrived in Hollywood, she was tutored on the sets. She planned on attending graduation day on Sunset High School, but she was excluded from it, and instead graduated from University High School in 1941.[1]:66 Her work schedules prohibited her from enrolling university.In 1940, during the shooting of Star Dust, Darnell shortly went out with teen idol Mickey Rooney.[1]:53 Her first love was Jaime Jorba, a Mexican whom she met while still in high school. They met again during production of Blood and Sand, but drifted apart when Jorba announced he could not marry a girl who was in the eye of the public.[1]:62 Starting at age 17, Darnell dated her publicity agent Alan Gordon, whom she allegedly married on a double wedding with Lana Turner and Joseph Stephen Crane on July 17, 1942.[26] The report turned out to be false, and over the years Darnell became known as “filmland’s most eligible bachelorette.”[1]:72 Up to 1942, she dated Kay Kyser, Eddie Albert, George Montgomery and Jackie Cooper, among others.[1]:72 At one point, she was set to elope with talent agent Vic Orsatti, only to later report that she was “concentrating on [her] career.”[1]:72Although a well-loved figure on the 20th Century Fox lot among the cast, crew and lot workers, it was reported that Darnell made only one good friend in Hollywood, actress-singer Ann Miller, whom she met at a Catalina Island benefit.[1]:58 Darnell was very negative about the Hollywood social scene, finding it “nauseating”.[1]:69 During her stay in Hollywood, her relationship with her mother Pearl worsened, her mother being an unpopular figure on the lot due to her overbearing and possessive behavior.[1]:60 In 1940, Pearl accused her husband for having an incestuous relationship with Evelyn, one of her children, even though he was not Evelyn’s biological father.[1]:55 Following an intense fight between her parents in 1942, Darnell left home with her younger sister Monte and never returned.[1]:71 In spite, Pearl turned to the press, which gained Darnell some bad publicity.In 1942, Darnell was plagued with extortion letters of an unknown person threatening with bodily harm unless $2,000 was paid immediately. The studio assigned the FBI to protect the actress, and eventually a 17-year-old high school student was arrested for the crime.[1]:70–71On April 18, 1943, at age 19, Darnell eloped with 42-year-old cameraman J. Peverell Marley in Las Vegas. Dar

    nell and Marley started seeing each other in 1940, and the press dismissed him as her “devoted friend and escort.”[1]:54 Most friends and relatives disapproved of the marriage, including 20th Century Fox and her parents, and it was believed that Darnell looked at Marley more as a father figure than her romantic interest.[1]:77 Marley was a heavy drinker and introduced Darnell to alcohol in 1944, which eventually led to an addiction and weight problem.[1]:84–85 Neighbors and acquaintances recalled the drastic change she underwent in this period, becoming hardened and hot-tempered. In 1946, during production of Centennial Summer, she repeatedly met with Howard Hughes. Although she initially disregarded gossip of an affair, she fell in love with the womanizing millionaire and separated from Marley shortly after finishing My Darling Clementine.[1]:93–94 When Hughes announced that he had no desire to marry her, Darnell returned to her husband and cancelled divorce proceedings. Shortly after the reunion, her health worsened, caused by the tough production of Forever Amber (1947).Because Darnell and Marley were unable to have children, they adopted a daughter in 1948, Charlotte Mildred “Lola” Marley (born January 5, 1948), the actress’s only child. She also planned to adopt a boy within years, but nothing ever came of it.[1]:107 In mid-1948, she became romantically involved with Joseph L. Mankiewicz, the director of A Letter to Three Wives, and in July 1948, she filed for divorce. Mankiewicz, however, was unwilling to leave his wife for Darnell, and even though the affair would continue for six years, she returned to her husband. Whereas she called him the “great love of her life”, Mankiewicz never acknowledged the affair, and only mentioned her to his biographer as a “marvelous girl with very terrifying personal problems.”[1]:112 In 1949, Darnell went into psychotherapy for hostile emotions that she had been building since childhood.[1]:114 Even though it showed its effects, Darnell’s romance with Mankiewicz influenced her personal life. When he left in late 1949 for on location shooting of All About Eve (1950), Darnell fell into a depression and almost committed suicide.[1]:117On January 25, 1949, Darnell went to court to sue her former business manager Cy Tanner for fraud. She testified that he stole $7,250 from her between 1946 and 1947, and Tanner was eventually sent to prison.[1]:115 On July 19, 1950, it was reported that Darnell had separated from her husband. Marley offered a quiet settlement – without mention of Mankiewicz – for a payment of $125,000. She agreed, and almost lost all of her money. When she filed for divorce from Marley in 1951, she accused her husband of cruelty, claiming he was “rude” and “critical” towards Darnell and her family. Following a five-minute hearing, Darnell was granted a divorce and custody of Charlotte, while Marley was to pay $75 a month for child support.[27]In her later life, she dated actor Dick Paxton and had an affair with Italian director Giuseppe Amato.[1]:137 She was married to brewery heir Philip Leibmann (1954–55), and pilot Merle Roy Robertson (1957–1963). In 1963, Darnell was granted a divorce from Robertson following an outburst in the courtroom, where she accused her third husband of fathering the baby of a Polish actress.[28] She was promised a monthly alimony of $350 until July 15, 1964, and $250 until September 15, 1967.[28]

    She died on April 10, 1965, at age 41, from burns she received in a house fire in Glenview, Illinois. She had been staying there with friends while preparing for a stage role in the Chicago area. Her 1940 film, Star Dust, had played on television the night of the fire, and it was widely reported that Darnell had fallen asleep with a lit cigarette while watching it. Some more sensational reports claimed she was intoxicated and despondent over her career. But biographer Ronald L. Davis, in his book Hollywood Beauty, wrote that there was no evidence that any of these stories were true, or that Darnell was in any way responsible for the blaze. By his account, Darnell was burned over 90 percent of her body because rather than jump from the window as her friend’s daughter had already done, Darnell tried to make it to the front door. She reached the door but the doorknob was too hot to touch.[1]:177–179Her ashes are interred at the Union Hill Cemetery, Chester County, Pennsylvania, in the family plot of her son-in-law. For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Linda Darnell has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1631 Vine Street.

    Film
    Year Title Role Notes
    1939 Hotel for Women Marcia Bromley
    1939 Day-Time Wife Jane Norton
    1940 Star Dust Carolyn Sayres
    1940 Brigham Young Zina Webb – The Outsider Alternative title: Brigham Young: Frontiersman
    1940 Mark of Zorro, TheThe Mark of Zorro Lolita Quintero
    1940 Chad Hanna Caroline Tridd Hanna
    1941 Blood and Sand Carmen Espinosa
    1941 Rise and Shine Louise Murray
    1942 Loves of Edgar Allan Poe, TheThe Loves of Edgar Allan Poe Virginia Clemm
    1943 City Without Men Nancy Johnson Alternative title: Prison Farm
    1943 Song of Bernadette, TheThe Song of Bernadette The Virgin Mary Uncredited
    1944 Buffalo Bill Dawn Starlight
    1944 It Happened Tomorrow Sylvia Smith/Sylvia Stevens
    1944 Summer Storm Olga Kuzminichna Urbenin
    1944 Sweet and Low-Down Trudy Wilson
    1945 Hangover Square Netta Longdon
    1945 Great John L., TheThe Great John L. Anne Livingstone
    1945 Fallen Angel Stella
    1946 Anna and the King of Siam Tuptim
    1946 Centennial Summer Edith Rogers
    1946 My Darling Clementine Chihuahua
    1947 Forever Amber Amber St. Clair
    1948 Walls of Jericho, TheThe Walls of Jericho Algeria Wedge
    1948 Unfaithfully Yours Daphne De Carter
    1949 Letter to Three Wives, AA Letter to Three Wives Lora Mae Hollingsway
    1949 Slattery’s Hurricane Mrs. Aggie Hobson
    1949 Everybody Does It Cecil Carter
    1950 No Way Out Edie Johnson
    1950 Two Flags West Elena Kenniston
    1951 13th Letter, TheThe 13th Letter Denise Turner
    1951 Guy Who Came Back, TheThe Guy Who Came Back Dee Shane
    1951 Lady Pays Off, TheThe Lady Pays Off Evelyn Walsh Warren
    1952 Saturday Island Lt. Elizabeth Smythe
    1952 Night Without Sleep Julie Bannon
    1952 Blackbeard the Pirate Edwina Mansfield
    1953 Second Chance Clare Shepperd, alias Clare Sinclair
    1954 Angels of Darkness Lola Baldi Original title: Donne proibite
    1954 This Is My Love Vida Dove
    1955 It Happens in Roma Renata Adorni Alternative title: The Last Five Minutes
    1956 Dakota Incident Amy Clarke
    1957 Zero Hour! Ellen Stryker
    1965 Black Spurs Sadie
    Television
    Year Title Role Notes
    1956 20th Century Fox Hour, TheThe 20th Century Fox Hour Lily Martyn Episode: “Deception”
    1956 Screen Director’s Playhouse Ellen Episode: “White Corridors”
    1956–
    1957
    Ford Television Theatre, TheThe Ford Television Theatre Jennifer Hollander/Meredith Montague
    Ann Dean
    Episodes: “All for a Man”
    “Fate Travels East”
    1957 Schlitz Playhouse of Stars Episode: “Terror in the Streets”
    1957 Playhouse 90 Meg Lyttleton Episode: “Homeward Borne”
    1957 Climax! Helen Randall Episode: “Trial by Fire”
    1958 Jane Wyman Presents The Fireside Theatre Lora Episode: “The Elevator”
    1958 Studio 57 Episode: “My Little Girl”
    1958 Wagon Train Dora Gray Fogelberry Episodes: “The Dora Gray Story”
    “The Sacramento Story”
    1958 Pursuit Episode: “Free Ride”
    1958 Cimarron City Mary Clinton Episode: “Kid on a Calico Horse“
    1959 77 Sunset Strip Zina Felice Episode: “Sing Something Simple“
    1964 Burke’s Law Monica Crenshaw Episode: “Who Killed His Royal Highness?”

  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br Davis, Ronald L., Hollywood Beauty: Linda Darnell and the American Dream. ISBN 0806133309
  • ^ Davis, Ronald L., Hollywood Beauty: Linda Darnell and the American Dream, p. 16. ISBN 0806133309
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i “Linda Darnell Newest ‘Cinderella’ In Hollywood” by Louella O. Parsons, Deseret News, August 19, 1939, p. 7
  • ^ “Watch These 5 Girls!”, The St. Petersburg Times, June 1, 1940
  • ^ Marg, Susan (2004). Las Vegas Weddings: A Brief History, Celebrity Gossip, Everything Elvis, and the Complete Chapel Guide. HarperCollins. p. 91. ISBN 0-060-72619-9. 
  • ^ “Linda Darnell, Just 16, Achieves Film Stardom In A Woman’s Role” by Robbins Coons, Big Spring Daily Herald, October 15, 1939, p. 2
  • ^ “Success Comes Fast and Heavy”, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 28, 1939
  • ^ “At the Motion Picture Theaters”, Ottawa Citizen, December 18, 1939, p. 7
  • ^ “‘Daytime Wife’ Makes Hit At U.A. Theater”, Berkeley Daily Gazette, December 11, 1939, p. 16
  • ^ “Stars’ Lives Good Stories”, Pittsburgh Press, December 27, 1939, p. 15
  • ^ “Linda Darnell Scores New Hit In ‘Star Dust'”, Daily Record (Washington), April 12, 1940, p. 6
  • ^ “Success Story of Linda Darnell Is Challenge to High School Girls” by Jimmie Fidler, The St. Petersburg Times, June 9, 1940, p. 22
  • ^ “Linda Darnell Chosen ‘Song of Islands’ Star”, Los Angeles Times, August 15, 1940
  • ^ Orchestra Wives at the TCM Movie Database
  • ^ “Darnell Is Cast Opposite Ty Power” by Louella Parsons, Deseret News, December 10, 1945, p. 10
  • ^ “Notes for Captain from Castile”. Turner Classic Movies. http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title.jsp?stid=70228&category=Notes. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  • ^ “The Big Idea Behind MY DARLING CLEMENTINE”. Turner Classic Movies. http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/article.jsp?contentId=288845. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  • ^ Black, Gregory D. (1998). The Catholic Crusade Against the Movies, 1940–1975. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60, 61. ISBN 0-521-62905-5. 
  • ^ Taylor, Helen (1989). Scarlett’s Women: Gone With the Wind and Its Female Fans. Rutgers University Press. p. 163. ISBN 0-813-51496-7. 
  • ^ a b “Linda Darnell to Star In ‘Forever Amber'”, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 25, 1946, p. 5
  • ^ Hagen, Ray; Wagner, Laura (2004). Killer Tomatoes: Fifteen Tough Film Dames. McFarland. p. 27. ISBN 0-786-41883-4. 
  • ^ “Notes for The Lady Pays Off (1951)”. Turner Classic Movies. http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title.jsp?stid=80692&category=Notes. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  • ^ “KRAMER IS SEEKING BRANDO FOR MOVIE; Producer Would Have Actor Star in ‘Frenzy’ — Brooklyn Girl Signs for U.-I. Picture”. The New York Times. September 23, 1952. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20B10F63A58107A93C1AB1782D85F468585F9. Retrieved 2010-08-24. 
  • ^ “Linda Darnell”. glamourgirlsofthesilverscreen.com. http://www.glamourgirlsofthesilverscreen.com/show/59/Linda+Darnell/index.html
  • ^ “Lana Turner Elopes With Stock Broker; Linda Darnell Goes Along; May Wed Also”, Deseret News, July 17, 1942, p. 17
  • ^ “Actress Linda Darnell Granted Divorce From ‘Rude’ Husband”, The Charleston Gazette, February 20, 1951, p. 5
  • ^ a b “Linda Darnell Wins Divorce From Pilot”, Press-Telegram (Long Beach), November 28, 1963, p. 2
  • Marilyn Maxwell

    Marilyn Maxwell


    from the trailer for
    High Barbaree (1947) Born Marvel Marilyn Maxwell
    August 3, 1921(1921-08-03)
    Clarinda, Iowa, U.S. Died March 20, 1972 (aged 50)
    Beverly Hills, California, U.S. Years active 1942–1971 Spouse(s) John Conte (1944–1946)
    Anders (Andy) McIntyre (1949–1950)
    Jerry Davis (1954–1960)

    Marilyn Maxwell (August 3, 1921 – March 20, 1972), born Marvel Marilyn Maxwell, was an American actress and entertainer.Noted for her blonde hair and sexy persona she appeared in several films and radio programs, and entertained the troops during World War II and the Korean War on USO tours with Bob Hope.

    Contents

    She started her professional entertaining career as a radio singer while still a teenager before signing with MGM in 1942 as a contract player. Among the programs in which she appeared was The Abbott and Costello Show. The head of MGM, Louis B. Mayer, insisted she change the “Marvel” part of her real name. She dropped her first name and kept the middle. Some of her film roles included Lost in a Harem (1944), Champion (1949), The Lemon Drop Kid (1951), and Rock-A-Bye Baby (1958).In the 1961-1962 television season, Maxwell played Grace Sherwood, owner of the diner on ABC‘s 26-episode Bus Stop, a drama about travelers passing through the fictitious town of Sunrise, Colorado.

    In 1972, Maxwell’s 15-year-old son arrived home from school and found her dead at the age of fifty of an apparent heart attack, after she had been treated for hypertension and pulmonary disease. Bob Hope, Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Benny were honorary pallbearers at her funeral.[1]

    • Stand by for Action (1942)
    • Presenting Lily Mars (1943)
    • Dr. Gillespie’s Criminal Case (1943)
    • Salute to the Marines (1943)
    • DuBarry Was a Lady (1943)
    • Thousands Cheer (1943)
    • Swing Fever (1943)
    • Three Men in White (1944)
    • Lost in a Harem (1944)
    • Between Two Women (1945)
    • Ziegfeld Follies (1946) (scenes deleted)
    • The Show-Off (1946)
    • High Barbaree (1947)
    • Summer Holiday (1948)
    • Race Street (1948)
    • Champion (1949)
    • Key to the City (1950)
    • Outside the Wall (1950)
    • The Lemon Drop Kid (1951)
    • New Mexico (1951)
    • Off Limits (1953)
    • East of Sumatra (1953)
    • Paris Model (1953)
    • New York Confidential (1955)
    • Forever, Darling (1956)
    • Rock-A-Bye Baby (1958)
    • Critic’s Choice (1963)
    • Stage to Thunder Rock (1964)
    • The Lively Set (1964)
    • Arizona Bushwhackers (1968)
    • From Nashville with Music (1969)
    • The Phynx (1970)

    • Screen Snapshots: Hollywood Goes to Bat (1950)
    • Brooklyn Goes to Las Vegas (1956)

  • ^ “Marilyn Maxwell Obituary”. Eickemeyer Funeral Chapel. http://www.efc.cc/obituaries/prominent/marilyn_maxwell.htm. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
    • Terrace, Vincent. Radio Programs, 1924-1984. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999. ISBN 0-7864-0351-9

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