Julie Bell

Not to be confused with geneticist Julia Bell. (1958) Website http://www.imaginistix.com/

Julie Bell (born 1958 in Beaumont, Texas) is an American painter. A fantasy artist and wildlife artist, she is a former bodybuilder and fantasy model for her husband, painter Boris Vallejo.


Julie Bell has painted the covers for about 100 fantasy/science fiction book and magazine covers since 1990. In the early ’90s, she illustrated painted covers for video games as well as best-selling trading cards for the superheroes of Marvel and DC. She designed the award-winning Dragons of Destiny sculpture series, Mistress of the Dragon’s Realm dagger series, as well as the Temptation Rides sculpture series produced by The Franklin Mint.Julie and her husband, Boris Vallejo, have done many paintings for advertising campaigns such as Nike, Inc., Coca-Cola, and Toyota. She has painted the covers for 2 albums by rock-icon, Meat Loaf—Bat Out Of Hell III: The Monster Is Loose and Hang Cool Teddy Bear.

Further information: Children of God (cult)#Plagiarized artIn 2003, a Flash animation slideshow titled “Family Art Corner” was released anonymously, alleging that a woman named Jan McRae had plagiarized the work of many artists, including Bell, for reproduction in proselytization tracts printed by the Children of God cult.[1] Bell’s works, Archangel II, Expedition, Rogue, and Princess Mustang were compared in the slideshow, as were many works by Bell’s husband, Boris Vallejo. After the slideshow was released, Karen Zerby, leader of the Children of God acknowledged that McRae had copied the work of others, as did McRae herself, and McRae admitted wrongdoing.[2]

  • Imaginistix
  • The Ultimate Collection
  • Fabulous Women
  • Fantasy Workshop
  • Sketchbook
  • Superheroes
  • Twin Visions
  • The Julie Bell Portfolio (2000)
  • Soft As Steel : The Art of Julie Bell (1999)
  • Hard Curves (1996)

Julie was the winner of the Chesley Award for Artistic Achievement in 2008.She also designed the cover art for Meat Loaf‘s albums Bat out of Hell III: The Monster is Loose and its first single “It’s All Coming Back to Me Now” and the album, “Hang Cool Teddy Bear”.In 2007, Bell and her husband Vallejo illustrated the poster for Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters.[3]A yearly calendar of 13 paintings by Julie Bell and Boris Vallejo is produced by Workman Publishing.

Bell and Vallejo reside in Pennsylvania. She has two sons, Anthony Palumbo and David Palumbo, both of whom are also professional painters.Bell is also a former nationally ranked competitive bodybuilder.[4]

  • ^ Plagiarized art at xFamily.org
  • ^ Which Comes First: The Revelation or the Artwork?, xFamily.org
  • ^ “Posterwire.com: King of the Mountain”. http://www.posterwire.com/archives/2007/03/05/king-of-the-mountain/
  • ^ http://www.imaginistix.com/juliebio.cfm
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    Olivia De Berardinis

    Text document with red question mark.svg This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (April 2010)

    Olivia de Berardinis (born 1948) is an American painter of pin-up art and erotic art.Olivia De Berardinis was born in California in 1948 but spent most of her childhood on the East Coast. Her father, Sante De Berardinis, was a freelance aeronautical engineer, and his work kept Olivia’s family constantly on the move. Being the only child, Olivia lived in an adult world where she spent much of her time drawing. Olivia’s playful, flirtatious mother, Connie, served as her favorite model and muse. In 1967 she attended the New York School of Visual Arts, and became involved in the minimalist art movement while there. Over the next few years she took odd jobs to pay the rent but continued to paint and began to show her work, primarily minimalist oils on canvas. By 1974 financial pressures induced Olivia to seek out commercial art work, and so she returned to the skills she had gained as a child, painting beautiful women for periodicals and paperback publishers. In a short time Olivia secured regular work painting erotic fantasies for men’s magazines.In 1975 Olivia met Joel Beren and they were married four years later. Living on Manhattan’s Upper West Side they developed a small publishing business, O Cards, primarily printing Olivia’s work as greeting cards. They created another company, Ozone Productions, Ltd. to sell and license Olivia’s artwork. Olivia has had shows of her artwork throughout the United States and Japan, and her work is collected by fans worldwide. Over 200 limited editions have been published, and an original Olivia painting now appears in each issue of Playboy magazine.

    • The Great American Pin-Up, by Charles G. Martignette and Louis K. Meisel, ISBN 3-8228-1701-5

    Aslan (artist)

    Aslan (born Alain Gourdon, in Bordeaux, France on May 23, 1930) is a French painter, sculptor and pin-up artist. He is mostly famous in France for his pin ups. He contributed to Lui from the creation of the magazine in 1964 to the early eighties, providing a monthly pin up.He is the sculptor of the Fifth Republic Marianne as Brigitte Bardot in 1970, followed by the Mireille Mathieu Marianne.

    Ruby Keeler

    Ruby Keeler

    From the trailer of Dames (1934) Born Ethel Hilda Keeler
    August 25, 1910
    Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada Died February 28, 1993 (aged 82)[1]
    Rancho Mirage, California, USA Years active 1933–1989 Spouse(s) John Homer Lowe (1941-1969) (his death) four children
    Al Jolson (1928-1939) (divorced) 1 child

    Ruby Keeler, born Ethel Hilda Keeler, (August 25, 1910 – February 28, 1993) was an actress, singer, and dancer most famous for her on-screen coupling with Dick Powell in a string of successful early musicals at Warner Brothers, particularly 42nd Street (1933). From 1928 to 1940, she was married to legendary singer Al Jolson. She retired from show business in the 1940s but made a widely publicized comeback on Broadway in 1971.


    Keeler was born in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada to an Irish Catholic family, one of six siblings. Two sisters, Helen and Gertrude, had brief performing careers. Her father was a truck driver, and when she was three years old, her family packed up and moved to New York City where he knew he could get better pay.[2] But it was not enough: there were six children, and although Keeler was interested in taking dance lessons, the family could not afford to send her.Keeler attended St. Catherine of Siena parochial school on New York’s East Side, and one period each week a dance teacher would come and teach all styles of dance. The teacher saw potential in Keeler and spoke to her mother about Ruby taking lessons at her studio.[citation needed]Although her mother declined, apologizing for the lack of money, the teacher wanted to work with her so badly that she asked her mother if she would bring her to class lessons on Saturdays, and she agreed. During the classes, a girl she danced with told her about auditions for chorus girls. The law said you had to be 16 years old, and although they were only 13, they decided to lie about their ages at the audition.[citation needed] It was a tap audition, and there were a lot of other talented girls there. The stage was covered, except for a wooden apron at the front. When it was Ruby’s turn to dance, she asked the dance director Julian Mitchell, if she could dance on the wooden part so that her taps could be heard. He did not answer, so she went ahead, walked up to the front of the stage, and started her routine. The director said, “who said you could dance up there?” She replied, “I asked you!” and she got a job in George M. Cohan‘s The Rise of Rosie O’Reilly (1923), in which she made forty-five dollars a week to help her family.[citation needed]

    She was only fourteen when she was hired by Nils Granlund, the publicity manager for Loew’s Theaters who also served as the stageshow producer for Texas Guinan at Larry Fay‘s El Fay nightclub,[3] a speakeasy frequented by gangsters.[4] She was noticed by Broadway producer Charles B. Dillingham, who gave her a role in Bye Bye Bonnie, which ran for six months. She then appeared in Lucky and The Sidewalks of New York, also produced by Dillingham. In the latter show, she was seen by Flo Ziegfeld, who sent her bunch of roses and a note, “May I make you a star?”.[citation needed] She would appear in Ziegfeld’s Whoopee! in 1928, the same year she married Al Jolson.The two met in Los Angeles (not at Texas Guinan‘s as he would claim), where Nils Granlund had sent her to assist in Loew’s marketing campaign for The Jazz Singer. Jolson was smitten and immediately proposed. Keeler reportedly initially declined but later relented. The couple married September 21, 1928 in Port Chester, New York in a private ceremony performed by Surrogate Judge G. A. Slater of Westchester County, New York.[5] The two had hoped to be wed aboard the White Star Liner Olympic, but were informed that company regulations no longer allowed ship’s captains to perform “at sea” ceremonies. The two sailed the following morning for a brief honeymoon before she began her tour with Whoopee!.[6][7] The marriage (during which they adopted a son) was reportedly a rocky one. They moved to California, which took her away from the limelight. In 1929, at the urging of Ziegfeld, Jolson agreed to Keeler’s returning to Broadway to star in Show Girl.In 1933, producer Darryl F. Zanuck cast Keeler in the Warner Bros. musical 42nd Street appearing opposite Dick Powell and Bebe Daniels. The film was a huge success due to Busby Berkeley‘s lavish innovative choreography. Following 42nd Street, Jack Warner gave Keeler a long-term contract and cast her in Gold Diggers of 1933, Footlight Parade, Dames, and Colleen. Keeler and Jolson starred together in Go Into Your Dance. Frank Tashlin‘s 1937 cartoon, The Woods are Full of Cuckoos, featuring a porcine caricature called “Ruby Squealer”.[citation needed]. Jolson and Keeler appeared on Broadway one last time together for the unsuccessful show Hold On To Your Hats in 1940.

    After a difficult marriage, Keeler and Jolson were divorced in 1940. Keeler remarried in 1941 to John Homer Lowe. Keeler left show business the same year. Keeler and Lowe had four children. Lowe died of cancer in 1969.In 1963, she appeared in The Greatest Show on Earth, Jack Palance‘s revival on television of the earlier Charlton Heston circus film of the same name. In 1972, Keeler starred in the successful Broadway revival of the 1920s musical No, No, Nanette, along with fellow Irish-Americans Helen Gallagher and Patsy Kelly. The production was directed by Keeler’s 42nd Street director, Busby Berkeley, and choreographed by Donald Saddler.

    Keeler had two nephews who also worked in the film business. Joey D. Vieira, also known as Donald Keeler, is best remembered for portraying chubby, beanie-wearing farm boy, Sylvester “Porky” Brockway on TV’s Lassie (retitled Jeff’s Collie in syndicated reruns and on DVD) from 1954-57.[8] Vieira’s brother, Ken Weatherwax, played Pugsley Addams on the 1960s TV series
    The Addams Family.[8]

    Ruby Keeler died of cancer in Rancho Mirage, California and was interred in the Holy Sepulchre Cemetery in Orange, California. She has a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6730 Hollywood Blvd.


    • Show Girl in Hollywood (1930)
    • 42nd Street (1933)
    • Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933)
    • Footlight Parade (1933)
    • Dames (1934)
    • Flirtation Walk (1934)
    • Go Into Your Dance (1935)
    • Shipmates Forever (1935)
    • Colleen (1936)
    • Ready, Willing and Able (1937)
    • Mother Carey’s Chickens (1938)
    • Sweetheart of the Campus (1941)
    • The Phynx (1970)
    • Beverly Hills Brats (1989)
    Short Subjects

    • Ruby Keeler (1929)
    • Screen Snapshots Series 9, No. 20 (1930)
    • And She Learned About Dames (1934)
    • Screen Snapshots Series 16, No. 7 (1937)
    • A Day at Santa Anita (1937)
    • Hollywood Handicap (1938)
    • Screen Snapshots: Hollywood Recreation (1940)

  • ^ “Ruby Keeler, tap dancing actress, is dead at 82” New York Times (March 3, 1993)
  • ^ Charles Foster, Once Upon a Time in Paradise, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2003, p. 167.
  • ^ Granlund, Nils T., Blondes, Brunettes, and Bullets, David McKay, New York City, 1957, p. 125.
  • ^ Charles Foster, Once Upon a Time in Paradise, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 169.
  • ^ New York Times, “Jolson Secretly Weds Ruby Keeler, Actress”, September 22, 1928, p. 1
  • ^ Charles Foster, Once Upon a Time in Paradise, Toronto: Dundurn Press, pp. 171-76
  • ^ She was believed to be 19 years old and he 42 years old. However at Shadow Waltz Keeler’s younger sister, Margie Keeler-Weatherwax is quoted as saying “Al was the same age as our father [Ralph Hecter Keeler] when Ruby met him … Poppa was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1882. Al was 46 when he married Ruby, and she was 18.
  • ^ a b Lamparski, Richard (1982). Whatever Became Of …? Eighth Series. New York: Crown Publishers. pp. 230–1. ISBN 0-517-54855-0. 
    • Frank, Rusty E. and Hines, Gregory. Tap! The Greatest Tap Dance Stars and their Stories 1900-1955. Da Capo Press, Inc. ISBN 0-306-80635-5. 

    Cheryl Ladd

    This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. (November 2007) Cheryl Ladd

    Cheryl Ladd in 2007 Born Cheryl Jean Stoppelmoor
    July 12, 1951 (1951-07-12) (age 59)
    Huron, South Dakota Spouse David Ladd (1973-1980)
    Bryan Russell (1981-present) Website http://www.cherylladd.com/

    Cheryl Ladd (born Cheryl Jean Stoppelmoor; July 12, 1951) is an American actress, singer and author. Ladd is best known for her role as Kris Munroe in the television series Charlie’s Angels, hired amid a swirl of publicity prior to its second season in 1977 to replace the departing Farrah Fawcett-Majors. Ladd remained with the show for the rest of its run, until its cancellation in 1981.


    Ladd was born Cheryl Jean Stoppelmoor in Huron, South Dakota, the daughter of Dolores (née Katz), a waitress, and Marion Stoppelmoor, a railroad engineer.[1] She married fellow actor David Ladd, son of the famous actor Alan Ladd, with whom she had a daughter, Jordan. She took his surname as her own, which she kept after their divorce. She has been married to music producer Bryan Russell since 1981, and has a stepdaughter, Lindsay Russell. Ladd is a celebrity ambassador for the child abuse prevention and treatment non-profit Childhelp. In an interview, Ladd told the TBN network that she is a born again Christian.

    Ladd initially came to Hollywood in 1970 to begin a career in music (she was known as “Cherie Moor” when she was the singing voice of Melody on Hanna-Barbera‘s Josie and the Pussycats animated series). She soon began to land non-singing roles in commercials and episodic television – including guest appearances on shows such as The Rookies, The Partridge Family and Happy Days – which became the focus of her career throughout much of the decade until her role in Charlie’s Angels. That series made her an overnight star, and Ladd took the opportunity of her sudden popularity to further pursue her musical interests, guest-starring in musical-comedy variety series and specials, performing the National Anthem at the Super Bowl XIV in January 1980, and releasing three albums, enjoying a Top 40 Hot 100 single and a Gold record. In September 2000, Ladd starred on Broadway, taking over the title role from Bernadette Peters in a revival of Irving Berlin‘s Annie Get Your Gun. She played the role until January 2001, when Reba McEntire took over.Following Charlie’s Angels, Ladd remained a familiar face on television and has starred in more than 30 made for television movies, including a coveted role as Grace Kelly, the Philadelphia heiress who became a Hollywood glamour girl and then a European princess, in a biopic that was begun shortly before Kelly’s death. She also starred in feature films such as Purple Hearts, Millennium, Poison Ivy (featuring Drew Barrymore, who later starred in the film adaptions of Charlie’s Angels) and Permanent Midnight. Ladd had the lead role in the television series One West Waikiki (1994–96), and made guest appearances in other TV shows such as Charmed, Hope and Faith and CSI:Miami. From 2003 until the show’s cancellation in 2008, Ladd played Jillian Deline, the wife of the lead character Ed Deline (James Caan), in 28 episodes of the television drama Las Vegas.In 1996, Ladd published a children’s book, The Adventures of Little Nettie Windship. In 2005, she published Token Chick: A Woman’s Guide To Golfing With The Boys, an autobiographical book which focused on her love of golf. For several years, Ladd hosted a golf tournament sponsored by Buick.On April 17, 2010, Ladd, along with her co-angel, Jaclyn Smith, accepted the “2010 TV Land Pop Culture Award” for Charlie’s Angels.Currently in 2010, Ladd is filming a new TV movie tilted, “Love’s Resounding Courage” for the Hallmark Channel. The film is set to air late 2010 or early 2011.

    • Josie and the Pussycats (1970)
    • Cheryl Ladd (1978) – The single “Think It Over” peaked at #34 on the Billboard music chart in the United States. The track “Walking In The Rain” was used as an ending song for Charlie’s Angels in Japan and was released as a single, while the song “I’ll Never Love This Way Again” was recorded by Dionne Warwick the following year. The Album reached #129.
    • Dance Forever (1979) – The title track was also the closing theme of Charlie’s Angels in Japan and was released as an EP, while the song “Where Is Someone To Love Me” was the theme of a Japanese whisky TV commercial featuring Ladd herself. The Album reached #179 in the United States.
    • Take a Chance (1981, in Japan)
    • You Make It Beautiful (1982, mini album in Tokyo, Japan)

    Cheryl Ladd in 2001

    • Josie and the Pussycats (1970)
    • The Ken Berry ‘Wow’ Show (1971)
    • Double Identity (1971)
    • The Rookies (2 episodes, 1972–1973)
    • Harry O (“Such Dust As Dreams Are Made On” 1973)
    • Ironside (1973)
    • Search (1973)
    • Satan’s School for Girls (1973)
    • The Partridge Family (1973)
    • The Streets of San Francisco (1974)
    • Harry O (1974)
    • Switch (1975)
    • Evil in the Deep (1976)
    • Police Woman (1977)

    • Police Story
    • Happy Days (“Wish Upon A Star” 1974)
    • The Fantastic Journey (“The Innocent Prey” 1977)
    • The San Pedro Beach Bums (19
    • Charlie’s Angels (TV series) (1977–1981)
    • The Battle of The Network Stars (1977)
    • The Sentry Collection Presents Ben Vereen: His Roots (1978)
    • The Muppet Show (1978)
    • Carol Burnett & Company
    • When She Was Bad… (1979)
    • “Super Bowl XIV” (Performance of national anthem, 1980)
    • The Hasty Heart (1983)
    • Kentucky Woman (1983)
    • Grace Kelly (1983)
    • Now and Forever (1983)
    • Romance on the Orient Express (1985)
    • A Death in California (1985)
    • The Twelfth Annual People’s Choice Awards
    • Crossings (1986)
    • Deadly Care (1987)
    • Bluegrass (1988)
    • The Fulfillment of Mary Gray (1989)
    • Millennium (1989)
    • Jekyll & Hyde (1990)
    • The Girl Who Came Between Them (1990)
    • Crash: The Mystery of Flight 1501 (1990)
    • Lisa (1990 film)
    • Changes (1991)
    • Locked Up: A Mother’s Rage (1991)
    • Dead Before Dawn (1993)
    • Broken Promises: Taking Emily Back (1993)
    • Dancing with Danger (1994)
    • One West Waikiki (1994–1996)
    • Kiss and Tell (1996)
    • The Haunting of Lisa (1996)
    • Vows of Deception (1996)
    • Ink (1997)
    • Every Mother’s Worst Fear (1998)
    • Perfect Little Angels (1998)
    • Jesse (1999)
    • Michael Landon, the Father I Knew (1999)
    • Two Guys and a Girl (1999–2000)
    • Her Best Friend’s Husband (2002)
    • Charmed (2003)
    • The Yesterday Show with Johnny Kerwin (2004)
    • Hope & Faith (2004)
    • Eve’s Christmas (2004)
    • Though None Go with Me (2006)
    • Las Vegas (2003–2008)
    • Holiday Baggage (2008)
    • CSI:Miami (“Bolt Action” 2009)
    • Love’s Resounding Courage (2010)

    • The Treasure of Jamacia Reef (1975) (as Cheryl Stoppelmoor)
    • Purple Hearts (1984)
    • Lisa (1989)
    • Millennium (1989)
    • Poison Ivy (1992)
    • Permanent Midnight (1998)
    • A Dog of Flanders (1999)
    • Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story (DVD Director’s Cut Unrated version 2007) Herself (cameo)

  • ^ http://www.filmreference.com/film/69/Cheryl-Ladd.html
  • Alice White

    Alice White

    Publicity photo Born Alva White
    August 24, 1904(1904-08-24)
    Paterson, New Jersey Died February 19, 1983 (aged 78)
    Los Angeles, California Years active 1927–1949 Spouse William Hinshaw
    Sy Bartlett (1933–1937)
    Jack Roberts (1941–1949)

    Alice White (August 24, 1904, Paterson, New Jersey – February 19, 1983, Los Angeles, California) was an American film actress.


    She was born Alva White of French and Italian parents. Her mother, a former chorus girl died when Alice was only three years old. She attended Roanoke College in Virginia and then took a secretarial course at Hollywood High School also attended by future actors Joel McCrea and Mary Brian. After leaving school she became a secretary and “script girl” for director Josef Von Sternberg. After clashing with Von Sternberg, White left his employment to work for Charlie Chaplin, who decided before long to place her in front of the camera.

    Publicity photo, 1934Her bubbly and vivacious persona led to comparisons with Clara Bow, but White’s career was slow to progress. After playing a succession of flappers and gold diggers, she attracted the attention of the director and producer Mervyn LeRoy who saw potential in her. Her first sound films included Show Girl (1928) made in the Vitaphone sound-on-disc system, and Show Girl in Hollywood (1930) in the Western Electric sound-on-film process, both released by Warner Brothers and both based on novels by J. P. McEvoy. In these two films, White appeared as “Dixie Dugan”. In October 1929, McAvoy started the comic strip Dixie Dugan with the character Dixie having a “helmet” hairstyle and appearance similar to actress Louise Brooks. White also used the services of Hollywood ‘beauty sculptor’ Sylvia of Hollywood to stay in shape[1].

    She left films in 1931 to improve her acting abilities, returning in 1933 only to have her career hurt by a scandal that erupted over her involvement with boyfriend actor Jack Warburton and future husband Sy Bartlett. Although she later married Bartlett, her reputation was tarnished and she appeared only in supporting roles after this. By 1937 and 1938, her name was at the bottom of the cast lists. She made her final film appearance in Flamingo Road (1949).White died of complications from a stroke, aged 78, on February 19, 1983.

    Alice White has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her contribution to Motion Pictures, at 1501 Vine Street.

  • ^ Hollywood Undressed: Observations of Sylvia As Noted by Her Secretary (1931) Brentano’s.
  • Gloria Swanson

    Gloria Swanson

    Born Gloria May Josephine Swanson
    March 27, 1899(1899-03-27)
    Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Died April 4, 1983 (aged 84)
    New York City, New York, U.S. Occupation Actress Years active 1914–1981 Spouse Wallace Beery (1916–1919)
    Herbert K. Somborn (1919–1922)
    Henri de la Falaise (1925–1931)
    Michael Farmer (1931–1934)
    George Davey (1945–1948)
    William Dufty (1976–1983)

    Gloria Swanson (March 27, 1899 – April 4, 1983) was an American actress. She was most prominent during the silent film era as both an actress and a fashion icon, especially under the direction of Cecil B. DeMille. In 1929, Swanson successfully transitioned to talkies with The Trespasser. However, personal problems and changing tastes saw her popularity wane during the 1930s. Today she is best known for her role as Norma Desmond in the film Sunset Boulevard (1950).


    Swanson was born Gloria Josephine May Swanson[1] in a small house in Chicago, Illinois, the daughter of Adelaide (née Klanowski) and Joseph Theodore Swanson, a soldier. She attended Hawthorne Scholastic Academy. Her father, whose surname was originally “Svensson”, was from a strict Lutheran Swedish American family, and her mother was of German, French and Polish ancestry.[2][3] Swanson herself was raised as a Lutheran. She grew up mainly in Chicago, Puerto Rico and Key West, Florida. It was not her intention to enter show business. Her parents separated when she was still in school. After her formal education ended, she went to a small film studio in Chicago for a visit and ended up being asked to come back to work as an extra.[4]

    She made her film debut in 1914 as an extra in The Song of Soul for Chicago’s Essanay Studios. While on a tour of the studio, she asked to be in the movie just for fun. Essanay hired her to feature in several movies, including His New Job, directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. Swanson auditioned for the leading female role in His New Job, but Chaplin did not see her as leading lady material and cast her in the brief role of a stenographer. She later admitted that she hated slapstick comedy and had been deliberately uncooperative.[citation needed]Swanson moved to California in 1916 to appear in Mack Sennett‘s Keystone comedies opposite Bobby Vernon, and in 1919 she signed with Paramount Pictures and worked often with Cecil B. DeMille, who turned her into a romantic lead in such films as Don’t Change Your Husband (1919), Male and Female (1919), with the famous scene in the lion cage, Why Change Your Wife? (1920), Something to Think About (1920) and The Affairs of Anatol (1921).In the space of two years, Swanson rocketed to stardom and was one of the most sought-after actresses in Hollywood. Swanson later appeared in a series of films directed by Sam Wood. She starred in Beyond the Rocks (1922) with her long-time friend Rudolph Valentino. (This film had been believed lost but was rediscovered in 2004 in a private collection in The Netherlands and is available on DVD.) Swanson continued to make costume drama films for the next few years. So successful were her films for Paramount that the studio was afraid of losing her and gave in to many of her whims and wishes.[citation needed]

    Gloria Swanson, 1921

    This 1921 Vanity Fair caricature by Ralph Barton[5] shows the famous people who, he imagined, left work each day in Hollywood; use cursor to identify individual figures.During her heyday, audiences went to her films not only for her performances, but also to see her wardrobe. Frequently ornamented with beads, jewels, peacock and ostrich feathers, haute couture of the day or extravagant period pieces, one would hardly suspect that she was barely five feet (1.52 m) tall. Her fashion, hair styles, and jewels were copied around the world. She was the screen’s first clothes horse and was becoming one of the most famous and photographed women in the world.[citation needed]In 1925, she starred in the first French-American co-production, Madame Sans-Gêne, directed by Léonce Perret. Filming was allowed for the first time at many of the historic sites relating to Napoleon. During the production of this film, she met her third husband Henry de la Falaise, Marquis de la Falaise, who was originally hired to be her translator during the film’s production. After four years’ residence in France, she returned to the United States as European nobility, now known as the Marquise. She got a huge welcome home with parades in both New York and Los Angeles. She appeared in a 1925 short produced by Lee DeForest in his Phonofilm sound-on-film process, which was one of the earliest attempts to synchronize sound with a moving image.[citation needed
    ]She made a number of films for Paramount, among them The Coast of Folly, Stage Struck and Fine Manners. In 1927, she decided to turn down a million dollar a year contract to join the newly-created United Artists. There she was her own boss and could make the films she wanted, with whom she wanted and when.Her first independent film, The Love of Sunya, in which she costarred with John Boles and Pauline Garon, opened the Roxy Theatre in New York City on March 11, 1927 (Swanson was pictured in the ruins of the Roxy on October 14, 1960, during the demolition of the theater in a famous photo taken by Time-Life photographer Eliot Elisofon). She was nominated for the first-ever Academy Award for Best Actress for her next film performance as the title character in the 1928 film Sadie Thompson, costarring and directed by Raoul Walsh, based on Somerset Maugham‘s short story “Miss Thompson”, later called “Rain” (the story was re-filmed under this title in 1932, starring Joan Crawford and directed by Lewis Milestone). Swanson’s unfinished film Queen Kelly (1929) was directed by Erich von Stroheim and produced by Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., father of the future President John F. Kennedy.Swanson ultimately made talkies, even singing in The Trespasser (1929) directed by Edmund Goulding, Indiscreet (1931), and Music in the Air (1934). Even though she managed to make the transition into talkies, her career began to decline. Never one to dwell on the past, she threw herself into painting and sculpting, writing a syndicated column, touring in summer stock, political activism, radio and television work, clothing and accessories design and marketing, and sporadically making appearances on the big screen.

    Sunset Boulevard (1950)After Mae West and several former silent screen actresses (including Mary Pickford and Pola Negri) all declined the role,[6] in 1950 Swanson starred in Sunset Boulevard, portraying Norma Desmond, a faded silent movie star who falls in love with the younger screenwriter Joe Gillis, played by William Holden. Norma Desmond lives in the past assisted by her butler Max, played by Erich von Stroheim. Her dreams of a comeback are subverted as she becomes delusional. There are guest cameos from actors of the silent era in the film including Buster Keaton, H. B. Warner and Anna Q. Nilsson. Cecil B. DeMille plays himself in a pivotal scene.This has since been called the greatest film about Hollywood. Many of the lines from the film have entered the language and are often used to describe Swanson herself: “The Greatest Star of them all”, “I am big, it’s the pictures that got small”, “We didn’t need dialogue, we had faces” and “All right, Mr. DeMille, I’m ready for my close-up.” She was nominated for her third Best Actress Oscar, but lost to Judy Holliday for Born Yesterday.[7]She received several subsequent acting offers but turned most of them down, saying they tended to be pale imitations of Norma Desmond. Her last major Hollywood motion picture role was poorly received Three for Bedroom “C” in 1952. In 1956, Swanson made Nero’s Mistress which also starred Vittorio de Sica and Brigitte Bardot. Her final screen appearance was as herself in Airport 1975.

    Swanson hosted one of the first television series in 1948, The Gloria Swanson Hour, in which she invited friends and guests. The show was filmed and broadcast live. Swanson also later hosted a television anthology series, Crown Theatre with Gloria Swanson, in which she occasionally acted.[8] Her last acting role, aside from playing herself in Airport 1975, was in the made-for-TV horror film Killer Bees in 1974.

    In her apartment in New York, 1972Through the 1970s and early 1980s, Swanson appeared on various talk and variety shows such as The Carol Burnett Show and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson to recollect on her films and to lampoon them as well. She was twice the “mystery guest” on What’s My Line. Her most famous television appearance is a 1966 episode of The Beverly Hillbillies titled “The Gloria Swanson Story” in which she plays herself. In the episode, the Clampetts mistakenly believe Swanson is destitute and decide to finance a comeback movie for her – in a silent film.Swanson appeared in many plays through her later career starting in the 1940s. She toured with A Goose for the Gander, Reflected Glory and Let Us be Gay. After her success with Sunset Boulevard she starred on Broadway in a revival of Twentieth Century (1951) with Jose Ferrer and in Nina with David Niven. Her last major stage role was in the 1971 Broadway production of Butterflies Are Free at the Booth Theatre.

    Joseph Kennedy ensured Swanson had the services of Hollywood’s famous beauty therapist Sylvia of Hollywood[9]. Swanson became a vegetarian around 1928 and was an early health food advocate who was known for bringing her own meals to public functions in a paper bag. Swanson told actor Dirk Benedict about macrobiotic diets when he was battling prostate cancer at a very young age. He had refused conventional therapies and credited this kind of diet and healthy eating with his recovery[10]. Later Swanson traveled the United States and helped to promote the book Sugar Blues written by her husband, William Dufty.

    Gloria Swanson in a frame or production still from the 1919 film Don’t Change Your Husband.

    Swanson’s first husband was Wallace Beery, whom she married on her 17th birthday. She wrote, in her autobiography Swanson on Swanson, that Beery raped her on their wedding night. Beery also impregnated Swanson in 1917. Not wanting her to have the child, he tricked her into drinking a concoction that induced an abortion. They divorced two years later.She married Herbert K. Somborn (1881–1934), then president of Equity Pictures Corporation and later the owner of the Brown Derby restaurant, in 1919. Their daughter, Gloria Swanson Somborn (October 7, 1920—December 28, 2000)[11], was born in 1920. Their divorce, finalized in January 1925, was sensational. Somborn accused her of adultery with 13 men including Cecil B. DeMille, Rudolph Valentino, and Marshall Neilan. During this divorce in 1923 Swanson adopted a baby boy, Sonny Smith (1922–1975), whom she renamed Joseph Patrick Swanson.Her third husband was French aristocrat Henry de la Falaise, Marquis de la Falaise whom she married in 1925 after the Somborn divorce was finalized. He became a film executive representing Pathé (USA) in France. She conceived a child with him, but had an abortion which, in her autobiography, she said she regretted. This marriage ended in divorce in 1931.[citation needed]Swanson had an affair with married tycoon Joseph P. Kennedy for a number of years. He became her business partner and their relationship was an open secret in Hollywood.[citation needed]In August 1931, she married Mi

    chael Farmer (1902–1975). Swanson’s divorce from La Falaise had not been finalized at the time, making the actress a bigamist. She was forced to remarry Farmer the following November, by which time she was four months pregnant with Michelle Bridget Farmer, who was born in 1932. Swanson and Farmer divorced in 1934.In 1945, she married William N. Davey. According to Swanson, after discovering Davey in a drunken stupor, she and daughter Michelle, believing they were being helpful, left a trail of Alcoholics Anonymous literature around their apartment. Davey quickly packed up and left.[citation needed]

    Gloria Swanson in a frame or production still from the 1920 film Why Change Your Wife?.Swanson joined the ranks of celebrities to be stalked. In the early 1950s she was pursued by a World War II veteran, Samuel Golden, who claimed that the two were destined to be married and would give her 2/3 of his children as well as divulge secrets about the Navy’s computer systems if she would run away with him. Recent declassified FBI documents disclose J. Edgar Hoover‘s obsession with seeing Golden tried for treason, but Golden dropped out of sight, apparently in the Greater Boston area.[citation needed]Swanson’s final marriage was in 1976 and lasted until her death. Her sixth husband and widower, writer William Dufty (1916–2002), was the co-author of Billie Holiday‘s autobiography Lady Sings the Blues, the author of Sugar Blues, a 1975 best-selling health book still in print, and the author of the English version of Georges Ohsawa‘s You Are All Sanpaku. He was best-known as a ghost-writer. He wrote Swanson’s best-selling 1980 autobiography, “Swanson on Swanson” for her with her help. Swanson shared her husband’s enthusiasm for macrobiotic diets and they traveled widely together. Dufty died of cancer in 2002.

    On April 4, 1983, Swanson died in New York City from a heart ailment, aged 84; she was cremated and her ashes interred at the Episcopal Church of the Heavenly Rest on Fifth Avenue, in New York City.[12]

    Gloria Swanson has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, one for motion pictures at 6748 Hollywood Boulevard and another for television at 6301 Hollywood Boulevard. Before her death, she sold her archives including photographs, copies of films and private papers to the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin.In the last years of her life Swanson professed a desire to see Beyond the Rocks, but the film was unavailable and considered lost. The film was later rediscovered and screened in 2005.

    Swanson has been played both on television and in film by:

    • Debi Mazar in Return to Babylon (2008)
    • Ann Turkel in White Hot: The Mysterious Murder of Thelma Todd (1991)
    • Madolyn Smith Osborne in The Kennedy’s of Massachusetts (1990)
    • Diane Venora in The Cotton Club (1984)[13]

    • Society for Sale (1918)
    • Her Decision (1918)
    • Station Content (1918)
    • You Can’t Believe Everything (1918)
    • Everywoman’s Husband (1918)
    • Shifting Sands (1918)
    • The Secret Code (1918)
    • Wife or Country (1918)
    • Don’t Change Your Husband (1919)
    • For Better, for Worse (1919)
    • Male and Female (1919)
    • Why Change Your Wife? (1920)
    • Something to Think About (1920)
    • The Great Moment (1921)
    • The Affairs of Anatol (1921)
    • Under the Lash (1921)
    • Don’t Tell Everything (1921)
    • Her Husband’s Trademark (1922)
    • Her Gilded Cage (1922)
    • Beyond the Rocks (1922)
    • The Impossible Mrs. Bellew (1922)
    • My American Wife (1922)
    • Prodigal Daughters (1923)
    • Bluebeard’s Eighth Wife (1923)
    • Hollywood (1923) (cameo)
    • Zaza (1923)
    • The Humming Bird (1924)
    • A Society Scandal (1924)
    • Manhandled (1924)
    • Her Love Story (1924)
    • Wages of Virtue (1924)
    • Madame Sans-Gêne (1924)
    • The Coast of Folly (1925)
    • Stage Struck (1925)
    • The Untamed Lady (1926)
    • Fine Manners (1926)
    • The Love of Sunya (1927)
    • Sadie Thompson (1928)
    • Queen Kelly (1929)
    • The Trespasser (1929)
    • What a Widow! (1930)
    • Indiscreet (1931)
    • Tonight or Never (1931)
    • Perfect Understanding (1933)
    • Music in the Air (1934)
    • Father Takes a Wife (1941)
    • Sunset Boulevard (1950)
    • Three for Bedroom “C” (1952)
    • Nero’s Mistress (1956)
    • Chaplinesque, My Life and Hard Times (1972) (documentary) (narrator)
    • Airport 1975 (1974)

    • The Song of the Soul (1914)
    • At the End of a Perfect Day (1915)
    • The Ambition of the Baron (1915)
    • The Fable of Elvira and Farina and the Meal Ticket (1915)
    • His New Job (1915)
    • Sweedie Goes to College (1915)
    • The Romance of an American Duchess (1915)
    • The Broken Pledge (1915)
    • The Nick of Time Baby (1916)
    • A Dash of Courage (1916)
    • Hearts and Sparks (1916)
    • A Social Cub (1916)
    • The Danger Girl (1916)
    • Haystacks and Steeples (1916)
    • Teddy at the Throttle (1917)
    • Baseball Madness (1917)
    • Dangers of a Bride (1917)
    • Whose Baby? (1917)
    • The Sultan’s Wife (1917)
    • The Pullman Bride (1917)
    • A Trip to Paramountown (1922)
    • Gloria Swanson Dialogue (1925)

    • The Peter Lind Hayes Show (1 episode, 1950)
    • What’s My Line? (2 episodes, 1950, 1965)
    • Hollywood Opening Night (1 episode, 1953)
    • Crown Theatre with Gloria Swanson (Host, 1954–1955)
    • The Steve Allen Show (1 episode, 1957)
    • Straightaway (1 episode, 1961)
    • Dr. Kildare (1 episode, 1963)
    • Kraft Suspense Theatre (1 episode, 1964)
    • The Alfred Hitchcock Hour (1 episode, 1964)
    • Burke’s Law (2 episodes, 1963–1964)
    • My Three Sons (1 episode, 1965)
    • Ben Casey (1 episode, 1965)
    • The Beverly Hillbillies (1 episode, 1966)
    • Killer Bees (1974)

    Year Award Result Category Film or series
    1929 Academy Award Nominated Best Actress in a Leading Role Sadie Thompson
    1930 The Trespasser
    1951 Sunset Boulevard
    1951 Golden Globe Award Won Best Motion Picture Actress – Drama Sunset Boulevard
    1964 Nominated Best TV Star – Female Burke’s Law
    1951 Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists Won Best Actress – Foreign Film (Migliore Attrice Straniera) Sunset Boulevard
    1951 Jussi Award Won Foreign Actress Sunset Boulevard
    1950 National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Won Best Actress Sunset Boulevard
    1980 Career Achievement Award
    1975 Saturn Award Won Special Award

    • Swanson, Gloria, Swanson on Swanson, 1980.
    • Quirk, Lawrence J., The Films of Gloria Swanson, Citadel Press, 1984.
    • Hudson, Richard, Gloria Swanson, Castle Books, 1970.
    • Tapert, Annette, The Power of Glamour, Crown Publishers, 1998, chapter 1.
    • Beauchamp, Cari, Joseph P. Kennedy Presents, His Hollywood Years, 2009.
    • Kessler, Ronald, The Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and the Dynasty He Founded, Warner, 1996, ISBN 0-446-60384-8, chapter 6.
    • Dufty, William, Sugar Blues, 1975 (and reprint), introduction.
    • Lockwood, Charles, Dream Palaces – Hollywood at Home, 1981.
    • Staggs, Sam, Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream, 2003.

  • ^ Cornell Sarvady, Andrea; Miller, Frank; Haskell, Molly; Osborne, Robert (2006). Leading Ladies: The 50 Most Unforgettable Actresses of the Studio Era. Chronicle Books. pp. 185. ISBN 0-811-85248-2. 
  • ^ Quirk, Lawrence J. (1984). The Films of Gloria Swanson. Citadel Press. pp. 256. ISBN 0806508744. 
  • ^ Harzig, Christiane (1996). Peasant Maids, City Women. Cornell University Press. pp. 283. ISBN 0801483956. 
  • ^ Swanson, Gloria (1981). Swanson on Swanson. Chapter 2: Random House. 
  • ^ Vanity Fair magazine September 1921, accessed 2009
  • ^ Staggs, Sam (2003). Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream. Macmillan. pp. 54. ISBN 0-312-30254-1. 
  • ^ Staggs, Sam (2003). Close-up on Sunset Boulevard: Billy Wilder, Norma Desmond, and the Dark Hollywood Dream. Macmillan. pp. 70. ISBN 031-2302-541. 
  • ^ Kashner, Sam; MacNair, Jennifer (2003). The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 345. ISBN 0-393-32436-2. 
  • ^ Beauchamp, Cari (2009) Joseph Kennedy Presents: His Hollywood Years p 263-5, Knopf, New York. ISBN 978-1400040001
  • ^ Benedict, Dirk (1991). Confessions of a Kamikase Cowboy. Avery Publishing Group. 
  • ^ thepeerage.com on Gloria Somborn Anderson, daughter of Gloria Swanson and Herbert Somborn
  • ^ Donnelley, Paul (2003). Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus. pp. 887. ISBN 0-711-99512-5. 
  • ^ Diane Venora IMDb profile
    • 1900 United States Federal Census, Chicago Ward 25, Town of Lakeview, Cook County, Illinois, Enumeration District 760, p. 8A (J.T. Swanson)

    Marie Wilson (American actress)

    Marie Wilson Born Katherine Elisabeth Wilson
    August 19, 1916(1916-08-19)
    Anaheim, California, U.S. Died November 23, 1972 (aged 56)
    Hollywood, California, U.S. Years active 1934–1972 Spouse Robert Fallon (1951-1972) (her death)
    Allan Nixon (1942-1950) (divorced)
    Nick Grinde (? - ?) (divorced)

    Marie Wilson featured on the cover of My Friend Irma #5 (October 1950)Katherine Elisabeth Wilson (August 19, 1916–November 23, 1972), better known by her stage name, Marie Wilson, was an American radio, film, and television actress.

    Born in Anaheim, California, Wilson began her career in New York City as a dancer on the Broadway stage. She gained national prominence with My Friend Irma on radio, television and film and played the quintessential dumb blonde, appearing in numerous comedies and in Ken Murray’s famous Hollywood “Blackouts”. During World War II, she was a volunteer performer at the Hollywood Canteen. She was also a popular wartime pin-up.


    Wilson’s performance in Satan Met A Lady, the second film adaptation of the detective novel The Maltese Falcon, is a virtual template for Marilyn Monroe‘s later onscreen persona. Wilson appeared in more than forty films and was a guest on The Ed Sullivan Show on four occasions. She was a television performer during the 1960s, working up until her untimely death.Wilson’s talents have been recognized with three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: for radio at 6301 Hollywood Blvd., for television at 6765 Hollywood Blvd., and for movies at 6601 Hollywood Boulevard.

    Wilson married four times: Nick Grinde (early 1930s), LA golf pro Bob Stevens (1938-39), Allan Nixon (1942-50) and Robert Fallon (1951-72).She died of cancer in 1972 at age 56. She was interred in the Columbarium of Remembrance at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Hollywood Hills.


    • Down to Their Last Yacht (1934)
    • Babes in Toyland (1934)
    • Ladies Crave Excitement (1935)
    • The Girl Friend (1935)
    • Stars Over Broadway (1935)
    • Miss Pacific Fleet (1935)
    • Broadway Hostess (1935)
    • Colleen (1936)
    • The Big Noise (1936)
    • Satan Met a Lady (1936)
    • China Clipper (1936)
    • King of Hockey (1936)
    • Melody for Two (1937)
    • Public Wedding (1937)
    • Over the Goal (1937)
    • The Great Garrick (1937)
    • The Invisible Menace (1938)
    • Fools for Scandal (1938)
    • Boy Meets Girl (1938)
    • Broadway Musketeers (1938)
    • Sweepstakes Winner (1939)
    • Should Husbands Work? (1939)
    • Cowboy Quarterback (1939)
    • Virginia (1941)
    • Rookies on Parade (1941)
    • Flying Blind (1941)
    • Harvard, Here I Come! (1941)
    • Broadway (1942)
    • She’s in the Army (1942)
    • You Can’t Ration Love (1944)
    • Shine On Harvest Moon (1944)
    • Music for Millions (1944)
    • Young Widow (1946)
    • No Leave, No Love (1946)
    • The Private Affairs of Bel Ami (1947)
    • The Fabulous Joe (1947)
    • Linda Be Good (1947)
    • My Friend Irma (1949)
    • My Friend Irma Goes West (1950)
    • Never Wave at a WAC (1952)
    • A Girl in Every Port (1952)
    • Marry Me Again (1953)
    • The Story of Mankind (1957)
    • Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation (1962)

    Short subjects:

    • My Gal Sally (1935)
    • Swingtime in the Movies (1938)
    • For Auld Lang Syne #3 (1938)
    • Vitaphone Pictorial Revue No. 12 (1938)
    • Screen Snapshots: The Great Showman (1950)
    • Screen Snapshots: Hollywood Stars on Parade (1954)

    • My Friend Irma (1952-54)
    • Ernestine (1962) (unsold pilot)
    • Where’s Huddles? (1970) (voice) (canceled after ten episodes)

    • Tranberg, Charles. Not So Dumb: The Life and Career of Marie Wilson. Albany: BearManor Media, 2007. ISBN 1-59393-049-6

    Dagmar (American actress)

    For other uses, see Dagmar (disambiguation).


    Alfred Eisenstaedt photographed Dagmar for the July 16, 1951 issue of Life Born Virginia Ruth Egnor
    November 29, 1921(1921-11-29)
    Yawkey, West Virginia, U.S. Died October 9, 2001 (aged 79)
    Ceredo, West Virginia, U.S. Other names Virginia Lewis
    Jennie Lewis Occupation Actress, model, television personality

    Dagmar (November 29, 1921 – October 9, 2001) was an American actress, model and television personality of the 1950s. As a statuesque, busty blonde, she became the first major female star of television, receiving much press coverage during that decade.Born in Yawkey, West Virginia as Virginia Ruth Egnor, she went to high school in Huntington, West Virginia where she was known as Ruthie. She attended Huntington Business School and worked at Walgreens as a cashier, waitress, sandwich maker and soda jerk.[1]


    After her marriage to Angelo Lewis in 1941, she moved to New York where he was a Naval officer, stationed at Navy Ferry Command on Long Island. She adopted Jennie Lewis as her stage name (taken from her real life married name, Virginia Lewis). To keep busy, she became a fashion photographer’s model, and in 1944, other models encouraged her to audition for comedians Ole Olsen and Chic Johnson. Although she had no show business experience, she was cast in their Broadway musical revue, Laffing Room Only, a Shubert production at the Winter Garden Theatre. With Olsen and Johnson, she performed in four sketches from December 23, 1944 to July 14, 1945.[1]As a chorus girl named Bubbles, she appeared with Bert Lahr in the Broadway comedy Burlesque, which ran for 439 performances from December 25, 1946 until January 10, 1948. The play was set in the basement dressing-room of a midwest burlesque theater, a New York hotel suite, and a theater in Paterson, New Jersey.

    In 1950, when Lewis was hired by Jerry Lester for NBC‘s first late-night show Broadway Open House (1950-52), he renamed her Dagmar. Lester devised the name as a satirical reference to the huge success on television of the TV series Mama (1949-57), in which the younger sister, Dagmar Hansen, was portrayed by Robin Morgan. As Dagmar, Lewis was instructed to wear a low-cut gown, sit on a stool and play the role of a stereotypical dumb blonde. With tight sweaters displaying her curvy 5′ 8″ figure (measuring 42″-23″-39″), her dim-bulb character was an immediate success, soon attracting much more attention than Lester. Lewis quickly showed that regardless of appearances she was quite bright and quick-witted. She appeared in sketches, and Lester made occasional jokes about her “hidden talents.” Her appearances created a sensation, leading to much press coverage and a salary increase from $75 to $1,250. With Dagmar getting all the attention, Lester walked off his own show in May 1951, and Dagmar carried on as host. On July 16, 1951, she was featured on the front cover of Life, and the show came to an end one month later.[2]Dagmar became one of the leading personalities of early 1950s live television, doing sketch comedy on Milton Berle‘s Texaco Star Theater, The Bob Hope Show and other shows. On June 17, 1951, she appeared on the Colgate Comedy Hour with host Eddie Cantor and guests Milton Berle, Phil Foster and Jack Leonard. In 1951, she made a TV guest appearance with Frank Sinatra, which prompted Columbia Records producer Mitch Miller to record a novelty duet with Frank and Dagmar, “Mama Will Bark“. That same year, she was featured in a Life cover story with Alfred Eisenstaedt‘s photo of her on the July 16, 1951 issue. For the interior photo essay, Life photographers followed her to rehearsals and accompanied her on a vacation back to her home town in West Virginia.In 1952, she hosted the short-lived, prime time Dagmar’s Canteen, in which she sang, danced, interviewed servicemen and performed comedy routines. The basic premise of the show was that servicemen from the audience were given roles to act alongside Dagmar in sketches. One of Dagmar’s sisters, Jean, was a member of the cast of Dagmar’s Canteen. Jean, who had previously worked as a chorus girl on Broadway, also served as Dagmar’s secretary, handling her sister’s fan mail, which sometimes soared to 8000 letters a month. When her television show ended, Dagmar performed in Las Vegas shows and summer stock theater. Liberace spoke glowingly of her in an interview, stating that she had given him his big break as her accompanist early in his career. In the 1950s, Dagmar occasionally made guest appearances on such shows as What’s My Line?, The Mike Wallace Interview and Masquerade Party (disguised as John L. Lewis) and during the 1960s she appeared on Hollywood Squares, The Mike Douglas Show and other shows.[1]

    She was one of a number of performers who posed for pictures in the Patrick Dennis novel First Lady, published in 1965, as the soubrette and Presidential courtesan Gladys Goldfoil.

    After her marriage to Angelo Lewis, she was married to actor Danny Dayton through much of the 1950s, followed by a marriage to bandleader Dick Hinds (1957). After years on the nightclub circuit, she moved to Ceredo, West Virginia in June 1996 to be near her family. In her last years, she lived with her brother, Bob Egnor, and his wife. Dagmar died in Ceredo, West Virginia on October 9, 2001 of undisclosed causes. She was survived by three sisters, three brothers, an aunt and numerous nieces and nephews.[3]

    The Dagmar bumper is a chrome bullet-point bulge on the front bumpers of Cadillacs, Chevrolets, Buicks and Lincolns built during the 1950s. During the Korean War, a 40 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft tank was named Dagmar’s Twin 40’s.

    • Mononymous persons
    • Faye Emerson

  • ^ a b c “The Delightful Dagmar,” Huntington Quarterly 35, 1999.
  • ^ Life. Jul
    16, 1951.
  • ^ Martin, Douglas (2001-10-11). “Dagmar, Foxy Blonde With First-Name Status in 50’s”. New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9903E1D8163FF932A25753C1A9679C8B63. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  • Judy Garland

    Judy Garland

    Garland in Till the Clouds Roll By (1946) Born Frances Ethel Gumm
    June 10, 1922(1922-06-10)
    Grand Rapids, Minnesota, U.S. Died June 22, 1969 (aged 47)
    Chelsea, London, England, UK Occupation Actress/Singer Years active 1924–1969 (singer)
    1929–1967 (actress) Spouse David Rose (1941–1944)
    Vincente Minnelli (1945–1951)
    Sid Luft (1952–1965)
    Mark Herron (1965–1967)
    Mickey Deans (1969)

    Judy Garland (June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American actress and singer. Through a career that spanned 45 of her 47 years, Garland attained international stardom as an actress in musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist and on the concert stage. Respected for her versatility, she received a Juvenile Academy Award, won a Golden Globe Award, received the Cecil B. DeMille Award for her work in films, as well as Grammy Awards and a Special Tony Award. After appearing in vaudeville with her sisters, Garland was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. There she made more than two dozen films, including nine with Mickey Rooney and the 1939 film with which she would be most identified, The Wizard of Oz. After 15 years, Garland was released from the studio but gained renewed success through record-breaking concert appearances, including a critically acclaimed Carnegie Hall concert, a well-regarded but short-lived television series and a return to acting beginning with a critically acclaimed performance in A Star Is Born (1954).Despite her professional triumphs, Garland battled personal problems throughout her life. Insecure about her appearance, her feelings were compounded by film executives who told her she was unattractive and manipulated her on-screen physical appearance. Plied with drugs to control her weight and increase her productivity, Garland endured a decades-long struggle with prescription drug addiction. Garland was plagued by financial instability, often owing hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes. She married five times, with her first four marriages ending in divorce. She also attempted suicide on a number of occasions. Garland died of an accidental drug overdose at the age of 47, leaving children Liza Minnelli, Lorna Luft and Joey Luft.In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the ten greatest female stars in the history of American cinema.


    Born Frances Ethel Gumm in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, Judy Garland was the youngest child of Francis Avent “Frank” Gumm (March 20, 1886 – November 17, 1935) and Ethel Marion Milne (November 17, 1893 – January 5, 1953). Garland’s parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a movie theatre that featured vaudeville acts.Garland’s ancestry on both sides of her family can be traced back to the early colonial days of the United States. Her father was descended from the Marable family of Virginia, and her mother from Patrick Fitzpatrick, who emigrated to America in the 1770s from Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland.[1]Named after both her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church, “Baby” (as Frances was called by her parents and sisters) shared her family’s flair for song and dance. Baby Gumm’s first appearance came at the age of two-and-a-half when she joined her two older sisters, Mary Jane “Suzy/Suzanne” Gumm (1915–64) and Dorothy Virginia “Jimmie” Gumm (1917–77), on the stage of her father’s movie theater during a Christmas show and sang a chorus of “Jingle Bells“.[2] Accompanied by their mother on piano, The Gumm Sisters performed at their father’s theater for the next few years. Following rumors that Frank Gumm had made sexual advances toward male ushers at his theater, the family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926.[3] Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster, and Ethel, acting as their manager, began working to get her daughters into motion pictures.

    In 1928, The Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe. The sisters appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show.[4] It was through the Meglin Kiddies that Garland and her sisters made their film debut, in a 1929 short subject called The Big Revue. This was followed by appearances in two Vitaphone shorts the following year, A Holiday in Storyland (featuring Garland’s first on-screen solo) and The Wedding of Jack and Jill. They next appeared together in Bubbles. The final on-screen appearance of The Gumm Sisters came in 1935, in another short entitled La Fiesta de Santa Barbara.[5]In 1934, the sisters, who by then had been touring the vaudeville circuit as “The Gumm Sisters” for many years, performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel. He encouraged the group t
    choose a more appealing name after the name “Gumm” was met with laughter from the audience. “The Garland Sisters” was chosen, and Frances changed her name to “Judy” soon after, inspired by a popular Hoagy Carmichael song.[6]Several stories persist regarding the origin of the name “Garland”. One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard‘s character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century which was then playing at the Oriental; another is that the trio chose the surname after drama critic Robert Garland.[7] Garland’s daughter Lorna Luft stated that her mother selected the name when Jessel announced that the trio of singers “looked prettier than a garland of flowers”.[8] Another variation surfaced when Jessel was a guest on Garland’s television show in 1963. He claimed that he had sent actress Judith Anderson a telegram containing the word “garland,” and it stuck in his mind.[9]At any rate, by late 1934 the “Gumm Sisters” had changed their name to the “Garland Sisters.”[10] The trio was broken up in August 1935, however, when Suzanne Garland flew to Reno, Nevada, and married musician Lee Kahn, a member of the Jimmy Davis orchestra playing at Cal-Neva Lodge, Lake Tahoe.[11]

    In 1935, Garland was signed to a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, supposedly without a screen test, though she had made a test for the studio several months earlier. The studio did not know what to do with Garland, as at age 13 she was older than the traditional child star but too young for adult roles. Garland’s physical appearance created a dilemma for MGM. At only 4 feet 11.5 inches (151.1 cm), Garland’s “cute” or “girl next door” looks did not exemplify the more glamorous persona required of leading ladies of the time. She was self-conscious and anxious about her appearance. “Judy went to school at Metro with Ava Gardner, Lana Turner, Elizabeth Taylor, real beauties,” said Charles Walters, who directed Garland in a number of films. “Judy was the big money-maker at the time, a big success, but she was the ugly duckling … I think it had a very damaging effect on her emotionally for a long time. I think it lasted forever, really.”[12] Her insecurity was exacerbated by the attitude of studio chief Louis B. Mayer, who referred to her as his “little hunchback”.[13] During her early years at the studio, she was photographed and dressed in plain garments or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match the “girl-next-door” image that was created for her. She was made to wear removable caps on her teeth and rubberized disks to reshape her nose.[14] She performed at various studio functions and was eventually cast opposite Deanna Durbin in the musical short Every Sunday. The film contrasted Garland’s contralto vocal range[15] and swing style with Durbin’s operatic soprano and served as an extended screen test for the pair, as studio executives were questioning the wisdom of having two girl singers on the roster.[16] Mayer finally decided to keep both girls, but by that time Durbin’s option had lapsed and she was signed by Universal Studios.On November 16, 1935, in the midst of preparing for a radio performance on the Shell Chateau Hour, Garland learned that her father—who had been hospitalized with meningitis—had taken a turn for the worse. Frank Gumm died the following morning, on November 17, leaving Garland devastated. Garland’s song for the Shell Chateau Hour was her first professional rendition of “Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart“, a song which would become a standard in many of her concerts.[17]

    Garland with Mickey Rooney in Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938)Garland next came to the attention of studio executives by singing a special arrangement of “You Made Me Love You” to Clark Gable at a birthday party held by the studio for the actor; her rendition was so well regarded that Garland performed the song in the all-star extravaganza Broadway Melody of 1938 (1937), in which she sang the song to a photograph of Gable.[18]MGM hit on a winning formula when it paired Garland with Mickey Rooney in a string of “backyard musicals”.[19] The duo first appeared together in the 1937 B movie Thoroughbreds Don’t Cry. They became a sensation, and teamed up again in Love Finds Andy Hardy. Garland would eventually star with Rooney in nine films.To keep up with the frantic pace of making one film after another, Garland, Rooney, and other young performers were constantly given amphetamines, as well as barbiturates to take before bed.[20] For Garland, this regular dose of drugs led to addiction and a lifelong struggle, and contributed to her eventual demise. She later resented the hectic schedule and felt that her youth had been stolen from her by MGM. Despite successful film and recording careers, several awards, critical praise, and her ability to fill concert halls worldwide, Garland was plagued throughout her life with self-doubt and required constant reassurance that she was talented and attractive.[21]

    Garland as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939)In 1938, at the age of 16, Garland was cast in the lead role of Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939), a film based on the children’s book by L. Frank Baum. In this film, Garland sang the song for which she would forever be identified, “Over the Rainbow“. Although producers Arthur Freed and Mervyn LeRoy had wanted Garland from the start, studio chief Mayer tried first to borrow Shirley Temple from 20th Century Fox. Temple’s services were denied and Garland was cast.[22] Garland was initially outfitted in a blonde wig for the part, but Freed and LeRoy decided against it shortly into filming. Her breasts were bound with tape and she was made to wear a special corset to flatten out her curves and make her appear younger; her blue gingham dress was also chosen for its blurring effect on her figure.[23]Shooting commenced on October 13, 1938,[24] and was completed on March 16, 1939,[25] with a final cost of more than $2 million.[26] From the conclusion of filming, MGM kept Garland busy with promotional tours and the shooting of Babes in Arms. Garland and Mickey Rooney were sent on a cross-country promotional tour, culminating in the August 17 New York City premiere at the Capitol Theatre, which included a five-show-a-day appearance schedule for the two stars.[27]On November 17, 1939, Garland’s mother, Ethel, married William P. Gillmore in Yuma, Arizona.[28] It was the fourth anniversary of her first husband’s death.The Wizard of Oz was a tremendous critical success, though its high budget and promotions costs of an estimated $4 million coupled with the lower revenue generated by children’s tickets, meant that the film did not make a profit until it was rereleased in the 1940s.[29] At the 1940 Academy Award

    s ceremony, Garland received an Academy Juvenile Award for her performances in 1939, including The Wizard of Oz and Babes in Arms.[30] Following this recognition, Garland became one of MGM’s most bankable stars.

    In 1940, she starred in three films: Andy Hardy Meets Debutante, Strike Up the Band, and Little Nellie Kelly. In the latter, Garland played her first adult role, a dual role of both mother and daughter. Little Nellie Kelly was purchased from George M. Cohan as a vehicle for Garland to assess both her audience appeal and her physical appearance. The role was a challenge for her, requiring the use of an accent, her first adult kiss, and the only death scene of her career.[31] The success of these three films, and a further three films in 1941, secured her position at MGM as a major property.

    Garland performing “The Trolley Song” in Meet Me in St. Louis (1944)

    Garland (ca. 1945) as she appears in the music exhibit at the Finney County Historical Museum in Garden City, KansasDuring this time Garland experienced her first serious adult romances. The first was with the band leader Artie Shaw. Garland was deeply devoted to Shaw and was devastated in early 1940 when Shaw eloped with Lana Turner.[32] Garland began a relationship with musician David Rose, and, on her 18th birthday, Rose gave her an engagement ring. The studio intervened because Rose was still married at the time to the actress and singer Martha Raye. The couple agreed to wait a year to allow for Rose’s divorce from Raye to become final, and were wed on July 27, 1941.[33] She was noticeably thinner in her next film, For Me and My Gal, alongside Gene Kelly in his first screen appearance. Garland was top billed over the credits for the first time, and effectively made the transition from teenage star to adult actress.At the age of 21, she was given the “glamour treatment” in Presenting Lily Mars, in which she was dressed in “grown-up” gowns. Her lightened hair was also pulled up in a stylish fashion. However, no matter how glamorous or beautiful she appeared on screen or in photographs, she was never confident in her appearance and never escaped the “girl next door” image that had been created for her.[34] Adding to her insecurity was the dissolution of her marriage to David Rose. Garland, who had aborted her pregnancy by Rose in 1942, agreed to a trial separation in January 1943, and they divorced in 1944.[35]One of Garland’s most successful films for MGM was Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), in which she introduced three standards: “The Trolley Song“, “The Boy Next Door“, and “Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas“. Vincente Minnelli was assigned to direct this movie, and he requested that make-up artist Dorothy Ponedel be assigned to Garland for the picture. Ponedel refined Garland’s appearance in several ways, including extending and reshaping her eyebrows, changing her hairline, modifying her lip line, and removing her nose discs. Garland appreciated the results so much that Ponedel was written into her contract for all her remaining pictures at MGM. During the filming of Meet Me in St. Louis, after some initial conflict between them, Garland and Minnelli entered a relationship together. They were married June 15, 1945,[36] and on March 12, 1946, daughter Liza Minnelli was born.[37]The Clock (1945) was her first straight dramatic film, opposite Robert Walker. Though the film was critically praised and earned a profit, most movie fans expected her to sing. It would be many years before she acted again in a non-singing dramatic role.Garland’s other famous films of the 1940s include The Harvey Girls (1946), in which she introduced the Academy Award-winning song “On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe“, and The Pirate (1948).

    Garland performing “Get Happy” in Summer Stock (1950)During filming for The Pirate in April 1947, Garland suffered a nervous breakdown and was placed in a private sanitarium.[38] She was able to complete filming, but in July of that year she undertook her first suicide attempt, making minor cuts to her wrist with a broken glass.[39] During this period, Garland spent two weeks in treatment at the Austen Riggs Center, a psychiatric hospital in Stockbridge, Mass.[40] Following her work on The Pirate, Garland completed three more films for MGM: Easter Parade (in which she danced with Fred Astaire), In the Good Old Summertime, and her final film with MGM, Summer Stock.Because of her mental condition, Garland was unable to complete a series of films. During the filming of The Barkleys of Broadway, Garland was taking prescription sleeping medication along with illicitly obtained pills containing morphine. These, in combination with migraine headaches, led Garland to miss several shooting days in a row. After being advised by Garland’s doctor that she would only be able to work in four- to five-day increments with extended rest periods between, MGM executive Arthur Freed made the decision to suspend Garland on July 18, 1948. She was replaced by Ginger Rogers.[41]Garland was cast in the film adaptation of Annie Get Your Gun in the title role of Annie Oakley. She was nervous at the prospect of taking on a role strongly identified with Ethel Merman, anxious about appearing in an unglamorous part after breaking from juvenile parts for several years, and disturbed by her treatment at the hands of director Busby Berkeley. She began arriving late to the set, and sometimes failed to appear. She was suspended from the picture on May 10, 1949, and was replaced by Betty Hutton.[42]Garland was next cast in the film Royal Wedding with Fred Astaire after June Allyson became pregnant in 1950. She again failed to report to the set on multiple occasions, and the studio suspended her contract on June 17, 1950. She was replaced by Jane Powell.[43] Reputable biographies following Garland’s death stated that after this latest dismissal, she slightly grazed her neck with a broken water glass, requiring only a Band-Aid, but at the time, the public was informed that a despondent Garland had slashed her throat.[44] “All I could see ahead was more confusion,” Garland later said of this suicide attempt. “I wanted to black out the future as well as the past. I wanted to hurt myself and everyone who had hurt me.”[45]

    In 1951, Garland divorced Vincente Minnelli.[46] She engaged Sid Luft as her manager the same year.[47] Luft arranged a four-month concert tour of the United Kingdom, where she played to sold-out audiences throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland.[48] The tour included Garland’s first appearances at the renowned London Palladium, for a four-week stand in April.[49] Although the British press chided her before her opening for being “too plump”, she received rave reviews and the ovation was described by the Palladium manager as the loudest he had ever heard.[50]In October 1951, Garland opened in a vaudeville-style, two-a-day engagement at Broadway’s newly refurbished Palace Theatre. Her 19-week engagement exceeded all previous records for the theater, and was described as “one of the greatest personal triumphs in show business history”.[51] Garland was honored for her contribution to the revival of vaudeville with a Special Tony Award.[52]Garland and Luft were married on June 8, 1952, in Hollister, California,[53] and Garland gave birth to the couple’s first child, Lorna Luft, on November 21 that year.[54]Garland’s personal and professional achievements during this time were marred by the actions of her mother, Ethel. In May 1952, at the height of Garland’s comeback, Ethel was featured in a Los Angeles Mirror story in which she revealed that while Garland was making a small fortune at the Palace, Ethel was working a desk job at Douglas Aircraft Company for $61 a week.[55] Garland and Ethel had been estranged for years, with Garland characterizing her mother as “no good for anything except to create chaos and fear” and accusing her of mismanaging and misappropriating Garland’s salary from the earliest days of her career.[56] Garland’s sister Virginia denied this, stating “Mama never took a dime from Judy.”[57] On January 5, 1953, Ethel was found dead in the Douglas Aircraft parking lot.[58]

    In 1954, Garland filmed a musical remake of the 1937 film A Star is Born for Warner Bros. Luft and Garland, through their production company Transcona Enterprises, produced the film while Warner Bros. supplied the funds, production facilities, and crew.[59] Directed by George Cukor and co-starring James Mason, it was a large undertaking to which Garland initially fully dedicated herself. As shooting progressed, however, she began making the same pleas of illness which she had so often made during her final films at MGM. Production delays led to cost overruns and angry confrontations with Warner Bros. head Jack Warner. Principal photography wrapped on March 17, 1954. At Luft’s suggestion, the “Born in a Trunk” medley was filmed as a showcase for Garland and inserted over director Cukor’s objections, who feared the additional length would lead to cuts in other areas. The “Born in a Trunk” sequence was completed on July 29.[60]

    Garland in A Star Is Born (1954)Upon its September 29 world premiere, the film was met with tremendous critical and popular acclaim. Before release it was edited at the instruction of Jack Warner; theater operators, concerned that they were losing money because they were only able to run the film for three or four shows per day instead of five or six, pressured the studio to make additional reductions. About 30 minutes of footage was cut, sparking outrage among critics and filmgoers. A Star is Born ended up losing money, and the secure financial position Garland had expected from the profits did not materialize.[61] Transcona made no more films with Warner.[62]Garland was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress and, in the run-up to the 27th Academy Awards, was generally expected to be the winner. She could not attend the ceremony because she had just given birth to her son, Joseph Luft, so a television crew was in Garland’s hospital room with cameras and wires to televise Garland’s anticipated acceptance speech. The Oscar was won, however, by Grace Kelly for The Country Girl (1954). The camera crew was packing up before Kelly could even reach the stage. Garland even made jokes about the incident, on her television series, saying “…and nobody said good-bye.” Groucho Marx sent Garland a telegram after the awards ceremony, declaring her loss “the biggest robbery since Brinks“. To this day, it is still considered to be one of the biggest upsets in the history of the Academy Awards.[63] Garland won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Musical for the role.[64]Garland’s films after A Star Is Born included Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) (for which she was Oscar- and Golden Globe-nominated for Best Supporting Actress), the animated feature Gay Purr-ee (1962), and A Child Is Waiting (1963) with Burt Lancaster. Her final film, I Could Go On Singing (1963), co-starring Dirk Bogarde, mirrored her own life with its story of a world famous singing star. Garland’s last screen performance of a song was the prophetic I Could Go on Singing at the end of the film.

    Beginning in 1955, Garland appeared in a number of television specials. The first, the 1955 debut episode of Ford Star Jubilee, was the first full-scale color broadcast ever on CBS and was a ratings triumph, scoring a 34.8 Nielsen rating. Garland signed a three-year, $300,000 contract with the network. Only one additional special, a live concert edition of General Electric Theater, was broadcast in 1956 before the relationship between the Lufts and CBS broke down in a dispute over the planned format of upcoming specials.[65] In 1956, Garland performed four weeks at the New Frontier Hotel on the Las Vegas Strip for a salary of $55,000 per week, making her the highest-paid entertainer to work in Las Vegas.[66] Despite a brief bout of laryngitis, her performances there were so successful that her run was extended an extra week.[67] Later that year she returned to the Palace Theatre, site of her two-a-day triumph. She opened in September, once again to rave reviews and popular acclaim.[68]In November 1959 Garland was hospitalized, diagnosed with acute hepatitis.[69] Over the next few weeks several quarts of fluid were drained from her body until, still weak, she was released from the hospital in January 1960. She was told by doctors that she likely had five years or less to live, and that even if she did survive she would be a semi-invalid and would never sing again.[70] She initially felt “greatly relieved” at the diagnosis. “The pressure was off me for the first time in my life.”[44] However, Garland successfully recovered over the next several months and, in August of that year, returned to the stage of the Palladium. She felt so warmly embraced by the British that she announced her intention to move permanently to England.[71]

    Garland before a concert in 1957Her concert appearance at Carnegie Hall on April 23, 1961, was a considerable highlight, called by many “the greatest night in show business history”.[72] The two-record Judy at Carnegie Hall was certified gold, charting for 95 weeks on Billboard, including 13 weeks at number one. The album won four Grammy Awards including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal of the Year.[73] The album has never been out of print.In 1961, Garland and CBS settled their contract disputes with the help of her new agent, Freddie Fields, and negotiated a new round of specials. The first, entitled The Judy Garland Show, aired in 1962 and featured guests Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin.[74] Following this success, CBS made a $24 million offer to Garland for a weekly television series of her own, also to be called The Judy Garland Show, which was deemed at the time in the press to be “the biggest talent deal in TV history”. Although Garland had said as early as 1955 that she would never do a weekly television series,[75] in the early 1960s she was in a financially precarious situation. Garland was several hundred thousand dollars in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, having failed to pay taxes in 1951 and 1952, and the financial failure of A Star is Born meant that she received nothing from that investment.[76] A successful run on television was intended to secure Garland’s financial future.Following a third special, Judy Garland and Her Guests Phil Silvers and Robert Goulet, Garland’s weekly series debuted September 29, 1963.[77] The Judy Garland Show was critically praised,[78][79] but for a variety of reasons (including being placed in the time slot opposite Bonanza on NBC) the show lasted only one season and was cancelled in 1964 after 26 episodes. Despite its short run, the series was nominated for four Emmy Awards.[80] The demise of the series was personally and financially devastating for Garland, who never fully recovered from its failure.

    Garland and Mickey Deans, at their wedding, 1969With the demise of her television series, Garland returned to the stage. Most notably, she performed at the London Palladium with her then 18-year-old daughter Liza Minnelli in November 1964. The concert, which was also filmed for British television network ITV, was one of Garland’s final appearances at the venue. She made guest appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show, The Tonight Show, The Hollywood Palace, and The Merv Griffin Show, guest-hosting an episode of the last one.[81]Garland sued Sid Luft for divorce in 1963, claiming “cruelty” as the grounds. She also asserted that Luft had repeatedly struck her while he was drinking and that he had attempted to take their children from her by force.[82] She had filed for divorce more than once previously, including as early as 1956.[83]A 1964 tour of Australia was largely disastrous. Garland’s first concert in Sydney, held in the Sydney Stadium because no concert hall could accommodate the crowds who wanted to see her, went well and received positive reviews. Her second performance, in Melbourne, started an hour late. The crowd of 7,000, angered by her tardiness—and believing Garland to be drunk—booed and heckled her, and she fled the stage after just 45 minutes.[84] She later characterized the Melbourne crowd as “brutish”.[56] A second concert in Sydney was uneventful but the Melbourne appearance garnered her significant bad press.[85] Some of that bad press was deflected by the announcement of a near fatal episode of pleurisy, followed by Garland’s fourth marriage to tour promoter Mark Herron. They announced that their marriage had taken place aboard a freighter off the coast of Hong Kong; however, Garland was not legally divorced from Luft at the time the ceremony was performed.[86] Her divorce from Luft became final on May 19, 1965,[82] but Herron and Garland did not legally marry until November 14.[87]In February 1967, Garland had been cast as “Helen Lawson” in Valley of the Dolls for 20th Century Fox. The character of “Neely O’Hara” in the book by Jacqueline Susann was rumored to have been based on Garland.[88] The role of O’Hara in the film was played by Patty Duke. During the filming, Garland missed rehearsals and was fired in April. She was replaced by Susan Hayward.[89] Garland’s prerecording of the song “I’ll Plant My Own Tree” survives today, along with her wardrobe tests.Returning to the stage, Garland made her last appearances at New York’s Palace Theatre in July, a 16-show tour, performing with her children Lorna and Joey Luft. Garland wore a sequined pantsuit on stage for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her character in Valley of the Dolls.[90]By early 1969, Garland’s health had deteriorated. She performed in London at the Talk of the Town nightclub for a five-week run[91] and made her last concert appearance in Copenhagen during March 1969.[92] She married her final husband, Mickey Deans, at Chelsea Register Office, London, on March 15, 1969,[93] her divorce from Herron having been finalized on February 11 of that year.[94]

    On June 22, 1969, Garland was found dead by Deans in the bathroom of their rented Chelsea, London house. The coroner, Gavin Thursdon, stated at the inquest that the cause of death was “an incautious self-overdosage” of barbiturates; her blood contained the equivalent of ten 1.5-grain (97 mg) Seconal capsules.[95] Thursdon stressed that the overdose had been unintentional and that there was no evidence to suggest she had committed suicide. Garland’s autopsy showed that there was no inflammation of her stomach lining and no drug residue in her stomach, which indicated that the drug had been ingested over a long period of time, rather than in one dose. Her death certificate stated that her death had been “accidental.”[96] Even so, a British specialist who had attended Garland said she had been living on borrowed time due to cirrhosis of the liver.[97] Garland had turned 47 just 12 days prior to her death. Her Wizard of Oz co-star Ray Bolger commented at Garland’s funeral, “She just plain wore out.” An estimated 20,000 people lined up for hours at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Chapel to view her body. James Mason gave a eulogy at the funeral, which was an Episcopalian service led by the Rev. Peter A. Delaney of Marylebone Church, London, who had officiated at Garland’s marriage to Deans.[98] Garland was interred in Ferncliff Cemetery, in Hartsdale, New York.

    Star for recognition of film work at 1715 Vine Street on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She has another for recording at 6764 Hollywood Blvd.Judy Garland’s legacy as a performer and a personality has endured long after her death. The American Film Institute named Garland eighth among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time.[99] She has been the sub

    ject of over two dozen biographies since her death, including the well-received Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir by her daughter, Lorna Luft. Luft’s memoir was later adapted into the multiple award-winning television miniseries, Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows, which won Emmy Awards for two actresses portraying Garland (Tammy Blanchard and Judy Davis).[100] Garland was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1997.[101] Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame.[102] These include “Over the Rainbow“, which was ranked as the number one movie song of all time in the American Film Institute’s “100 Years…100 Songs” list. Four more Garland songs are featured on the list: “Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas” (#76), “Get Happy” (#61), “The Trolley Song” (#26), and “The Man That Got Away” (#11).[103] Garland has twice been honored on U.S. postage stamps, in 1989 (as Dorothy)[104] and again in 2006 (as Vicki Lester from A Star Is Born).[105]

    Main article: Judy Garland as gay iconOf particular note is Garland’s status as a gay icon.[106] She always had a large base of fans in the gay community. Reasons often given for her standing, especially amongst gay men, are admiration of her ability as a performer, the way her personal struggles mirrored those of gay men in America during the height of her fame and her value as a camp figure.[107] A connection is frequently drawn between the timing of Garland’s death and funeral on June 27, 1969, and the Stonewall riots, the flashpoint of the modern Gay Liberation movement,[108][109] which started in the early hours of June 28. Coincidental or not, the proximity of Garland’s death to Stonewall has become a part of LGBT history and lore.[108] When asked about how she felt about being a gay icon, she responded, “I couldn’t care less. I sing to people.”[110]

    Main article: List of Judy Garland performances

    Main article: Judy Garland discography

    Main article: List of awards and honors received by Judy Garland

    • List of Judy Garland biographies

  • ^ McClure, Rhonda (2002-06-13). “Ancestry of Liza Minnelli”. Genealogy.com. http://www.genealogy.com/famousfolks/liza-minnelli/. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  • ^ Shipman p. 12
  • ^ Clarke, p. 23
  • ^ Clarke, pp. 29–30
  • ^ Finch pp. 43–47, 76
  • ^ Edwards p. 27
  • ^ “Judy: Beyond the Rainbow”. Biography. 1999-01-01.
  • ^ Luft, p. 26
  • ^ “Episode 12”. The Judy Garland Show. 1963-11-01. No. 12, season 1.
  • ^ “Program of Comedy Due — Eddie Conrad Will Head Ebell Vaudeville.” Los Angeles Times. Dec. 7, 1934. p. 15.
  • ^ “Nuptials Turn Trio to Duet — Cupid Robs Radio Team — Suzanne Garland Flies to Reno to Become Bride of Musician.” Los Angeles Times. Aug. 15, 1935. p. A 3.
  • ^Judy: Impressions of Garland“. Omnibus. 1972.
  • ^ Wayne, p. 204
  • ^ Frank p. 73
  • ^ “Judy Garland at the Hippodrome”. Judy Garland – The Live Performances!. http://users.deltacomm.com/rainbowz/con070951.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  • ^ Clarke p. 73
  • ^ Clarke p. 58
  • ^ Edwards p. 47
  • ^ “dOc DVD Review: Mickey Rooney & Judy Garland Collection (Babes in Arms/Strike Up the Band/Babes on Broadway/Girl Crazy) (1939-1943)”. Digitallyobsessed.com. 2009-04-01. http://www.digitallyobsessed.com/displaylegacy.php?ID=9718. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  • ^ “Judy Garland: By Myself”. American Masters. 2004-02-25.
  • ^ Clarke pp. 135–36
  • ^ Juneau p. 37
  • ^ Finch pp. 134–35
  • ^ Clarke p. 95
  • ^ Clarke p. 100
  • ^ Edwards p. 61
  • ^ Clarke pp. 102–103
  • ^ “Judy Garland’s Mother Becomes Bride.” Los Angeles Times. Nov. 18, 1939. p. 1.
  • ^ Clarke p. 104
  • ^ Clarke p. 105
  • ^ Juneau pp. 55–56
  • ^ Frank pp. 148–49
  • ^ Clarke p. 155
  • ^ Frank p 175
  • ^ Clarke p. 211
  • ^ Hopper, Hedda (September 1954). “No More Tears for Judy”. Woman’s Home Companion
  • ^ Clarke p. 223
  • ^ Edwards p. 108
  • ^ Frank p. 231
  • ^ “Judy Garland – Career Timeline | American Masters”. PBS. 2004-07-07. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/judy-garland/career-timeline/601/. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  • ^ Shipman p. 225
  • ^ Clarke p. 255
  • ^ Frank p. 271
  • ^ a b Alexander, Shana (1961-06-02). “Judy’s New Rainbow”. Life
  • ^ Hyams, Joe (January 1957). “Crack-Up”. Photoplay
  • ^ “Judy Garland Files Suit for Divorce”. U.P.. 1952-02-22. 
  • ^ Juneau p. 108
  • ^ Frank p. 304
  • ^ MacPherson, Virginia (1951-04-10). “Judy Garland in Comeback with Palladium Contract”. U.P.. 
  • ^ “British Give Judy Garland Big Ovation”. Associated Press. 1951-04-10. 
  • ^ Garver, Jack (1952-02-24). “Judy Garland Ends Triumphant Vaudeville Run”. UPI. 
  • ^ “Judy Garland”. American Theatre Wing. http://www.tonyawards.com/p/tonys_search. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  • ^ Garver, Jack (1952-06-12). “Judy Garland Married With Simple Ceremony”. U.P.. 
  • ^ Edwards p. 166
  • ^ Clarke p. 311
  • ^ a b Garland, Judy (August 1967). “The Plot Against Judy Garland”. Ladies’ Home Journal
  • ^ Shearer, Lloyd (1964-10-04). “Judy Garland’s Sister: The Happy One in the Family”. Parade
  • ^ Clarke p. 309
  • ^ Clarke p. 308
  • ^ Clarke p. 319
  • ^ Clarke p. 325
  • ^ Juneau p. 126
  • ^ Clarke p. 326
  • ^ “Judy Garland”. Hollywood Foreign Press Association. http://www.goldenglobes.org/browse/member/29377. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  • ^ Sanders p. 24
  • ^ “Judy Garland – About Judy Garland | American Masters”. PBS. 2004-07-07. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/judy-garland/about-judy-garland/600/. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  • ^ Frank pp. 420–21
  • ^ “Judy Reigns in Palace as Queen of New York”. UPI. 1952-10-31. 
  • ^ “Judy Garland Said To Have Hepatitis”. UPI. 1959-11-26. 
  • ^ Clarke p. 347
  • ^ Clarke p. 349
  • ^ Cox, Gordon (2006-05-28). “Rufus Over The Rainbow”. Variety
  • ^ “Grammy Awards for Judy at Carnegie Hall”. The Recording Academy. http://www.grammy.com/GRAMMY_Awards/Winners/Results.aspx. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  • ^ Sanders p. 29
  • ^ Parsons, Louella (1955-09-23). “TV Spectacular Gives New Rainbow to Judy”. The Daily Review
  • ^ Edwards p. 175
  • ^ Sanders p. 391
  • ^ Sanders pp. 108–109
  • ^ Lewis, Richard Warren (1963-12-07). “The TV Troubles of Judy Garland”. The Saturday Evening Post
  • ^ “Awards for The Judy Garland Show (1963)”. Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. http://www.emmys.tv/awards/awardsearch.php. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  • ^ DiOrio, p. 202
  • ^ a b “Judy Wins Divorce From Sid Luft”. Wisconsin State Journal. 1965-05-20. 
  • ^ Irwin, Elson (1968-11-17). “Judy Garland: Femme Fatale”. Stars and Stripes
  • ^ Edwards p. 213
  • ^ “Judy Garland Locks Self in Hotel Room”. Stars and Stripes (UPI). 1964-05-24. 
  • ^ Edwards p. 214
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  • ^ “Judy Garland The Live Performances. The End of the Rainbow”. http://users.deltacomm.com/rainbowz/eotr.html. Retrieved 2008-02-01.  citing United Press International article “Judy Took Too Many Pills”, and containing a copy of Garland’s death certificate.
  • ^ Times Wire Services, “Judy Garland Believed Killed by Overdose,” St. Petersburg Times, June 24, 1969. [1]
  • ^ “End of the Rainbow”. Time. 1969-07-04. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,840196-1,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  van Gelder, Lawrence (June 28, 1969). “Judy Garland’s Funeral Draws Her Colleagues” (html). The New York Times: Books. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/04/09/specials/garland-funeral.html?_r=5. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
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  • ^ Weinraub, Bernard (2001-11-05). “Subdued Patriotism Replaces Glitter as Television Finally Presents Its Emmys”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/05/us/subdued-patriotism-replaces-glitter-as-television-finally-presents-its-emmys.html. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  • ^ “Lifetime Achievement Award”. The Recording Academy. http://www.grammy.com/Recording_Academy/Awards/Lifetime_Awards/. Retrieved 2007-12-25. 
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  • ^ “AFI’s 100 Years…100 Songs”. American Film Institute. 2004-06-22. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071027165808/http://www.afi.com/tvevents/100years/songs.aspx. Retrieved 2007-12-25. 
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  • ^ United States Postal Service (2005-11-30). “The 2006 Commemorative Stamp Program”. Press release. http://www.usps.com/communications/news/stamps/2005/sr05_054.htm?from=bannercommunications&page=comstamps. Retrieved 2007-12-25. 
  • ^ Haggerty, George E. Gay Histories and Cultures. ISBN 0815318804. 
  • ^ Murray, Raymond (1996). Images in the Dark: An Encyclopedia of Gay and Lesbian Film and Video. TLA Video Management. 
  • ^ a b Bianco, p. 194
  • ^ Duberman, p. ix
  • ^ “Judy Garland Biography”. Activemusician.com. http://www.activemusician.com/Judy-Garland-Biography–t8i1714. Retrieved 2010-05-31. 
    • Bianco, David. Gay Essentials: Facts For Your Gay Brain. Alyson Publications. Los Angeles, 1999. ISBN 1-55583-508-2.
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    • Frank, Gerold. Judy. Harper & Row. New York, 1975. ISBN 0-06-011337-5.
    • Juneau, James. Judy Garland: A Pyramid Illustrated History of the Movies. Pyramid Publications. 1974, New York. ISBN 0-515-03482-7.
    • Luft, Lorna. Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir. Simon & Schuster. New York, 1999. ISBN 0-283-06320-3.
    • Sanders, Coyne Steven. Rainbow’s End: The Judy Garland Show. Zebra Books. 1990 ISBN 0-8217-3708-2 (paperback edition).
    • Seaman, Barbara. Lovely Me: The Life of Jacqueline Susann. Seven Stories Press. 1996, New York. ISBN 0-9658770-6-X (1996 edition).
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    • Steiger, Brad (1969). Judy Garland. New York, Ace Books.
    • Wayne, Jane Ellen (2003). The Golden Girls of MGM. New York, Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1303-8.

    Awards and achievements
    Preceded by
    Bob Newhart
    for The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart
    Grammy Award for Album of the Year
    for Judy at Carnegie Hall
    Succeeded by
    Vaughn Meader
    for The First Family
    Preceded by
    Ella Fitzgerald
    for Ella in Berlin: Mack the Knife
    Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance
    for Judy at Carnegie Hall
    Succeeded by
    Ella Fitzgerald
    for Ella Swings Brightly with Nelson
    Preceded by
    Dave Brubeck, Marvin Gaye, Georg Solti, Stevie Wonder
    Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
    Succeeded by
    Bo Diddley, Mills Brothers, Roy Orbison, Paul Robeson

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